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Published Monthly 
; 202 Broadway, N. Y.. for $1 per Ye. 


of New York, 

ered at the Post Off. 
N.Y,, as Second-Class Mail Matti 
Copyright, 1891, by D.T. AMES, 


Vol. XV.~No. 9 

Making Fancy Papers. 

COMPARATIVELY few Journal read- 
ers, perhaps, have had the opporunity 
of going through ix great manufact- 
uring establishment where fancy papers 
are made, ao that the journey with an alert 
reporter of Geijer^g Stationer as guide can- 
not fail to interest. 

First we enter the color room. Here 
are stored many great barrels filled with 
mixed and nnmixed painis, and machinery 
is grinding other paints of all hues. The 
preparation of most of these colors is a 
secret carefully guarded, and the work 
done in this 

floor, or rather down within a few inches 
of the floor. When the first and second 
sticks reach a distance of four inches apart 
they preserve that distance as they journey 
around the room, so that the paper looped 
down below them hangs in such a way 
that no part of it touches anything but 
the sticks which support it from the 
underneath or unpainted side. As each 
eighteen feet of the paper runs out another 
stick is caught upon the chains and comes 
out to form another loop of paper between 
it and the stick next in advance. This is 
continued till the circuit of the room has 
been made and many hundred yards of the 
colored paper hang in long loops from the 
sticks which cross the chain railway- 

ward over it by a long arm of wood which 
hangs straight downward from the ceiling 
and is controlled by a wheel. Each stroke 
of theflintstoue puts a very high, varnish- 
like polish on the previously dead colored 

Another process which may follow the 
coloring is what is called brushing. This 
gives an enamel finish. It is done by run- 
ning the paper over a large cylinder, with 
the colored side outward, while six cyl- 
inder brushes, each half a foot in diam- 
eter, made of stiff bristles, travel over the 
colored surface, bruching it lightly as it 
passes beneath them and put the so-called 
enamel polish upon it. 

Another process of polishing the paper 
and bringing out its colors bright and 
glossy is what is technically known as 
glazing. The apparatus used in this proc- 
ess consists of three cylinders, one above 

paper to be printed upon (which is usually 
blank) passes. These copper rollers are 
engraved in the different designs which it 
is proposed to put upon the paper. Say 
that one roller is engraved with some kind 
of a leaf or vine, while the other hears only 
minute faces. Each of these rollers is 
inked by another roller placed outside it 
in such a position that no part of it can by 
any possibility touch the paper to be 
printed upon. These inking rollers revolve 
in troughs of paint, and as they touch the 
engraved roller at any one point they trans- 
fer a very liberal portion of the paint to it. 
In fact, they ink it all over. If it were to 
touch the paper in this condition the re- 
sult would be that the paper would be al- 
most as thoroughly inked on one aide as 
the coloring machine cau 
just here a very ingen 

called a "doctor'" 

quently of more 
importance than 
would appear at 
first sight. In a 
great many c 
the establi 
ment has to ex- 
actly match col- 
ors to order, a 
rather difficult 
job. All are 
water colors. 

This color 
room is situated 
in the 
and on the 

Jf^^44^^:^U^^^. U^,yf^iZy' ^S. /f'f/. 


the raw material 
which the proc- 
esses spoken of 
below turn into 
various kinds of 
fancy papers. 
This raw material 

VJ. UJ^^^ ^^c^. Jl4/jif. ^uJrz^^Vr-t 

The Above Cut i 

iimply webs of white 

paper of varying thicknesses and breadths. 
The first process which the paper under- 
goes is coloring. This is done in rather a 
curious manner by means of a machine 
into which the paper is fed from the web. 
As the paper travels through this ma- 
chine a big cylinder shaped brush of 
bristles under which it passes daubs it all 
over with the paint; a little further on is 
a fiat brush of the same material. This 
second brush goes (juickly over the mov- 
ing paper crosswise, and spreads the ink 
evenly on the upper side of it. Another 
similar brush makes the spreading more 
complete, and then comes another big 
cylinder shaped brush, the duty of which 
is to drag the paper along. After this 
come several more flat brushes, making 
the even distribution of the paint more 
thorough, and then the paper passes clear 
of the machine. Il is not allowed to rest, 
however, for the end of it is fastened to 
a stick which lies across a kind of railway 
made of two endless chains which carry 
it up to the ceiling and along close to it. 
After say eighteen feet of the paper have 
run out of the machine, this chain railway 
picks up another stick, which chases the 
first stick up 80 actively that it soon 
nearly catches up to it, while the paper be- 
tween them hangs in a loop down to the 

When the paper s 

, off ( 


around the room it is so wet that one 
might reasonably expect it to take at least 
a week in drying, yet when it comes back, 
an hour or two after it left the machine, it 
is as dry as though it had lain ou a shelf 
for a year. The reason of this is that its 
whole course has been over a system of 
steam pipes which lie along the floor, and 
so, as it has passed along, it has been 
dried by a heat ranging upward from 150" 
F. As the paper comes back colored and 
dried it is made into a web again by a 
boy, who simply winds it up with a 

From the "coloring room " the paper 
may go to one of a number of points, at 
each of which a separate process is going 
on. For instance, it may go to be flinted, 
or embossed, or glazed. 

*■ Flinting ' looks like a very primitive 
process, the machinery used in it being so 
simple. The colored paper passes over a 
bar of wood, close-grained and susceptible 
of very high polish. As it passes over 
this bar a flint stone, shaped like a cylin- 
der on the lower side and highly polished 
also, is carried rapidly backward and for- 

another. The center eyUuder is of cotton 
and compressed to metallic hardness 
When the machine is stopped a visitor 
examining this cotton cylinder casually 
could hardly be persuaded that it was not 
made of some polished, light colored 
metal composition. The central roller 
produces friction, which creates great 
heat in the steel rollers above and below 
it, and as the paper glides between these 
rollers the heat and friction do the re- 
quired glazing. 

The flinting process, though the plainest 
of all those described, is considered the 
most perfect, as the polish put on by it is 
superior to that gotten in any other way. 

To get a paper with a dead, smooth sur- 
face the calender machine (the one last 
described above) is used. 
Prluilng iroin Eiieraved Cj-lliiderM. 

When the paper for a giveu order is all 
plated, or glazed, or flinted, or brushed, 
etc., it is taken away to other machines 
which either emboss or print it. The 
printing process is an interesting one, and 
differs very materially from that done in 
an ordinary printing office. It is done by 
means of engraved rollers of copper, or at 
least of copper surface. These are placed, 
in numbers as great as are required, on the 
lower side of a cylinder around which the 

ses it to be; but 
ious contrivance 
aes to the res- 
cue. The "doc- 
tor " is a steel 
blade which 
fits tight to the 
engraved roller 
above the point 
where the cloth- 
covered inking 

ink on. It rubs 
every vestige 
of the paint off 
the roller, ex- 
cept that which 
fills up the 
engraved d e - 
signs. These get 
through with 
a full cargo, 
which they 
print upon the 
paper. This is 
the same proc- 

in the printing 
of calicoes, and 
the figures made 
by it may be 
— _ . __ __ multiplied in- 

definitely. As 
the paper passes around above the cylinder 
upon which the printing process is going on 
it is carried up over a stfiam heater which 
dries the ink, and when it comes down on 
the other side a boy winds it up into a web 
again. This is the treatment of the paper 
most largely used by trunkmakers. 

The embossing process is done by a 
machine containing two rollers, each about 
six inches in diameter. One is of steel or 
copper and has the designs traced on 
it, while the other is of lead, a soft metal 
being used so that high pressure may 
make it take to a certain extent the figures 
engraved upon the steel or copper roller. 

The polished paper is merely passed be- 
tween these rollers. The pressure brings 
out the figures upon it. This kind of 
paper is used for many purposes by book- 
binders and fancy box makers. 

Gilt paper is not made in America, for 
the reason that no cheap and rapid proc- 
ess for manufacturing it has yet been in- 
vented. It comes from Germany, where 
workmen make it at the rate of a quarter 
of a ream a day. They do it altogether 
by laying on gold leaf as is done by book- 
binders here. 

Many of the fancy papers made are used 
by printers for printing upon in bronze. 
The extent of the business can be seen 
when it is known that the six coloring 
machines first spoken of turn out 300 
reams, or 00,000 yards, of colored paper, 
all dried and wound back into web form, 
per day, while the output of the other 
procefcS'.'S is proportionate. 

There are only about seven firms in the 
United States who manufacture fancy 

Penmanship in the Business 
College Course. 

[Fztraets from <in A>Iilreu hy Fifl'firxJ 
Sthofithi to the Pacific Butineu Edurat- 
Qr» at their Meeting, July, '91.1 
Wriliog with rcadioR U the foiindotion 

stone of the whole nystfm of educfttioD. 
It li89part in every oci-upation, from that 
of llic common laborer to the most accom- 
pHsbfd Bpherc in life, and while it is the 
mostHcrviccableof all the aita it is quite 
as pleaBing as any. Good writing, how- 
ever, is more popular, and bciDg more 
widely cultivated to- day than ever before, 
and we anticipale the time when it will 
■,e made a ceropuhory part of every col- 
lege education, lit4rary or bueines?, so 
ihat all shall write at leaH a legible, pre- 
Feotable hand, aod when we shall no 
loDgd nee iislanccs, aa have come un- 
der our own o»)seivation, of Harvard 
graduates and compilers of encyclopedias 
being compellcei to resort to copyists, sim- 
ply because their own worthless scrawls 
could not be deciphered. Its neglect wilt 
some may be due to the fact of its having 
been looked upon more in the light of an 
accoraplishmeiit than as having anyeducii- 
tional value; but exptrience teaches that 
it cultivates observation, attention, appli- 
catioD, ficlf control, a eensitive touch, ccl- 
(rity of BctioD, skill, taite and judgment. 
What sinple tludy does more ? 

Writing has two distinct missions, the 
business and the artistic. The hobby of 
the day is "business" find the prevailing 
topic, "business writing" as adjuncts of 
our schools and colleges. The mission of 
business writing has long been recognized 
as one to meet the demands of business in 
an intelligent and e-onsiste-nt manner. To 
do this, there has been adopted a legible 
and rapid system of writing, whereby the 
idea's and transnctions of the business 
world might be intelligently and quickly 
recorded. To be neat and legible, the 
system has been built of simple form?, 
medium in size, without shade, clear and 
distinct in appearance; to be rapid ard 
tireless, there hos been cultivated an er sy, 
lively apt movement in its execution. The 
necessity of having writing legible cannot 
be overestimated. . . While I 

assume that the standard for business 
writing and system for teaching it should 
be as high as skill iind brains can devise, 
I do not mean any flourished or fanciful 
style, but, as I have previously hinted, a 
simple, accurate, neat and tasty one, to be 
developed n-s highly as possible. This is 
what I believe business men prefer and 
expect. They can generally do enough of 
the rough and ready sort themselves and 
we ought to be able to show them that 
education means improvement. If a thing 
is worth doing at all. it is worth doing 
well; and withtut high aim, good models 
and gooel materials wc cannot expect to 
obtain even mediocre results. 

Spfclal I'rntnanmhlit Itfpartmtnts, 

Again, it has been foreseen that writing 
for bueiness purposes should be cultivated 
till it literally becomes a habit and can be 
executed without any special cure or 
thought on the part of the writer. In 
- Ihis way full and undivided attention can 
be given to the matter to be written rather 
than to the matter of writing it. But to 
become such apt and ready writers, the 
average student needs more time and 
practice as well as criticism or personal 
attention than he ran p:s&ibly get in the 
short time alloted him in connection with 
the other studies of the course. To meet 
this deflciency, there is needed a special 
department for penmanship, the same as for 
stenography, telegraphy, etc., so that these 
deflcient in writing may be given ample 
opportuDity and sufficient individual in- 
struction lo perfect it as much as possible, 
and as a consequence no poor writers go 
forth from our colleges with n diploma. 

This has been the s 

i iostitutioD. 

A great point for consideiation is. bow 
may this system of business wilting be 
best and most readily acquired. To this 
end all method bos be>en based upon posi- 
tion and movement, including a knowl- 
edge of form. Position is made tirst and 
alt important, since upon it depend health, 
the ability to write at length without tir- 
ing, good movement and all good features 
in writing. For the body is recommended 
a nearly front position, it being undoubt- 
edly the easiest, strongest and most health- 
ful. In assuming full position of body, 
arm and hand, care should be exercised in 
not allowing the body to touch the desk, 
nor any part of the arm except the fleshy 
part near the elbow, and that lightly; 
also in not permitting the hand to roll tco 
far to the right and in keeping the third 
and fourth tingers acting as a proper slid- 
ing rest, always allowing the band to carry 
it own weight instead of burdening the 
pen with it. The pen is held lightly but 
not loosely and in the direction of the main 
slant of letters, the holder passing just 
above or below the first knuckle joint, ac- 
cording to the length or shape of hand. 
The paper is given an oblique position in 
line with the right hand and arm. But 
the most important feature of all, and that 
upon which depends the slant of writing, 
is a correct relative position of the hand, 
pen and paper. 

The second step mentioned for gaining 
a good business handwriting is movement, 
mainly a good flexible fore-arm movement. 
This depends for its success upon the uni- 
formity, steadiness and ease of its motion, 
which qualities are the result of well-di- 
rected practice or of a well-disciplined 
mind and muscle. All menial (motions 
teuel to modify this movement, hence how 
important it is that the writer should main- 
tain a healthy, steady, calm and confident 
state of both body and mind, if he would 
bring out clearly and perfectly as possible 
upon paper the ideas which exist in h's 

Under the head of movement is classed 
form, because it is the kind of movement 
which so largely determines the shapes of 
letters; a right movement producing well- 
shaped letters anrl a wrong movement ill- 
shaped ones. Also irregularities in spacing 
and height are either directly the result of 
wrong movement or inability to control 
the muscles properly, or indirectly so 
through faulty position. But the prime 
necessity of having a mental knowledge of 
form previous to aug attempt at putting 
it on paper must not be overlooked No 
matter how much movement there is, form 
cannot be trade without knowing it first, 
and no matter how much form is known, 
it cannot be well executed without good 
movement. Then since form in practice 
is directly dependent upon the kind of 
movement, how c^se^tial it is that the 
ability should be acquired to move cor- 
rectly and readilv at will. 


In connection with the direction and 
quality of motion comes the rat« of 
motion. The wisest plan adopted regard- 
ing this point ie that which exacts nothing 
beyond an intelligible limit or full con- 
trol of the muscles. Too rapid practice 
in writing is apt to develop into a nervo is 
hurry rather than a wholesome velocitj'. 
On the other hand, too slow practice is 
quite as worthless and unavailable, for in 
Ihis way one would never learn to write 
rapidly and always be compelled to take 
up with the wages of a slow workman. 
A medium decree of speed has been ac- 
counted the most wholesale prescription, 
too greot dimi^jishing the power of con- 
trol and too little depriving of strength, 
rapidity and grace. The secret lies in the 
employment of a naturally quick stroke, 

It is beginning to be realized that but 
two or three new ideas can be grasped, at 
mc»t, by the average >tudent in the course 
of a half hour; hence the lessons are 
being made thort and pointed. The 
elementary lesions should be learned 
slowly and thoroughly, care being taken 
that no bad habits are formed to be un- 
learned. I'upils should be kept working 
together in unison upon the same thing 
at the same time — for unily of purpose is 
the secret of success in all undertakings — 
yet they should not be kept too con- 
tinuously upon any one thing, lest they 
weary of it, but other features should be 
introduced and the main matter re- 
verted to frequently till thoroughly 
mastered. They must have their minds 
fastened upon the copy before ihem, al- 
ways looking for errors and trying to cor 
rect them. The hand, with practice, soon 
learns to correct all the imperfections dis- 
coverable by the eye. Patience must be 
had with imperfect work if the effort be 
made, but it must be seen to that every 
pupil makes the effort and to the best of 
his ability. Generally if pupils made 
half the effort themselves that teachers do 
to aid them they would find little diffi- 
culty iit succeeding. But it makes a 
world of difference how they go at their 
. work. He who hplds his work at arm's 
length and goes at it faint-hearted, saying 
at every other step "I can't" or "I 
won't," never will and cannot expect and 
docs not deserve to succeed. One usually 
gets what he works for. Theteiicher, too, 
must be possessed of great faith, aptitude 
andcourage, for as is the teacher so largely 
are his pupils, and thus, with the combined 
faithful efforts of teacher and pupil, the 
student's progress in this department, as 
in other?, may bo such as will tend ever 
afterward to his constant self-improve- 
ment and help fit him to do some work in 
life so well (hat he may have a self-sus- 
taining career of his own and so have se- 
cured what a business education is de 
signed to impart. 


[Coiitiib'itUnifi fui- tliis DcpiutiHciil muy hu 
artdrcascil loll. F. Krixky. office nt Thk Pen- 
man's AiiT.Iouii^Ar.. llrlof e(li 

The tii-st "fellowship" fora woman has be 
establislu'd at Harvard. 

KlulpB found in the Pyramids of Epyi 
lilay€Hl;MlOO years after burial, show that t 

Mexico hns cm 
teachei-s. Thr 
above one-tliir isivp 

tbirtct'D vt'Bis of age in school was only one 
anil six tinths per cent, iu 188'J. In 18; the 
Dumber decreased to one and five-tenths per 

lie libraries of all Eurnpe put togttber c 

silver (hilli. I i^ wiw h ti:n-berof kindergarten 
philosupliv 111 tlie lUrW vNurmal School utPhit- 
adelijbiu." Her name is Mibs Anna W. Wil- 
liaoifi, and :ibe is familiarly knuwn among tier 
friends as Miss Liberty. 

s and political parties. 
I'ducatfou, such as is 

j[ j.«iiu nii.l >■!<-< k, <^liiltf I be modem 
rejects tbesc 1 inKiiny---. The outcome will tie 
bvatebed by all civilued nations. 

Pentlope (from Boston) : " Impos»ible, 
I aunty ; ihere are only two."— /^/r/r. 

Cklbstiai, !*abts or Speech— Flanetarj- 
conjunrtions.— AmifA, Qmy if CoJ's Monthly. 
H'lcA-ars: "Tliev tell me, professor, that 
pred all then ' - 
tlyfltot ; " 
wif<«"s' and her irolher'R."- 

"What iMirt nf chemistry interrsted you 
most f " was oskcit of a youni; woman who bad 
just l>ecn uinrricd to her teacher 

" AlfinitieK," waxthe bride^ ingenious reply. 

teiident."'— A.j»orA. 
Tt-acher: "Tommy, con you define 

Tomniu : " No, mum." 

Tfachrr: " Well, csn vou tell mo the fu- 
ture tense of ' he drlnhs ( ' *' 

Tommy: "He is drunk." 

Made thk Tracbrr Fkki, Hood.— ^mwc 
" Didn't you get anotber tbra.<^hiug in school 

Johnnij: "Yets fi:deed, I did; but it didn't 
"Did vim cry f" 

"Ob, denr !" exclaimed the pious little girl, 

I iii'\ ■ -.1.1111 ;iii<i :.ii \\\>\<'. — HoiilonTTan- 

Hchoolmiatress (with ominous look in her 
eye) : " What made you so late, Robert 

Robrrt : " Bpen fightin'." 

School ■ ■ 
have, eh . 

liobfrt : " Yes, ma'am. A boy sed yer % 
ugly as homo made sin, an' I jea give it 


the best y 

An ICi 

(advancing furiouslyl; "You 


A Boston preacher, in speaking of the dan- 

- ' pi-nijiitiug the BibI" ■ ■ . - 

nonspuper. perppt 

" Men, nowadays," 

^accbeus-de.'-irouB of seeing Jesus,' but cannot 

because of tlie press."—/'; inler^n c irculai\ 

" HL'e heah, Cadley, did you c»U me a com- 

-' Nn, Snobbuton; I said you wereau uncom- 

• Aw, that's diflfcrent, I cawn't stand having 
iiiiyb'xly cull mo common, y'know."— £r;joeft. 

Hvrlfti/ve Actrpss : " How did you like my 
costume f" 
Critic : " Beg pardon. Your what 1 " 
liurlt'nqup Actrfus : "My costume in the 

Critic: *' Oh, yen. Why, in the slang of Ihe 
day, it's ' out of sight.' " 

Fifst Chappie : ' " Oh, my deah boy ; he ! 
ho 1 he I I nave you now. Why was Balaam 
an astronon^er i He I bo ! " 

Second Chappie : "Give it up, muh deah 

yirsf Chappie : "Why, because ho found — 
he ! he ! lo ! uu uss to roid, don't vuh know ; 
lie ! be ! ho ! "— A'hi ith. Gray a CoS Monthly. 





askfd one day, "if I get married will I have 
to baveu hu&bund hke pa V 
" Yes," replitd i be mother, with an amused 

" And if I don't get married will I have to 
l>e nn old maid like Aunt Kate ? " 
" Yes." 
"Mamma"— after a pause— " It's a tough 

t it i" — hinffhamton 

lid for I 

Madgf : "This summer resort reminds me 
of what the professor said of the primary 
geological formations." 

Hn.uii.l'tlJ\v.i'ilt at '"rc'v^nt'" '" ' '" '"'"^''^'"^ 
Jack : ■■ isn't a coat uleeve allowed there 

occnsionaHy ("—Light. 
She (on the piazza at evening): " What on 

awfully large chair ! 1 really feel lost in ft." 
Wr ; " H'm : Well, if you^ll let nie have the 

ether half of it I gueoR I can find you," — 7>,r«« 


At the husking bee, if you get a red ear 
you may steal a ku«. Under other condilione, 
if you steal a ki»t you may get a red ear. — 
Ainuch Chunk Gazette. 

not mixtiiken I 

shoulder. What 
a young lady } 

t of ou altitude Is that for 

Mary lecutatically) : " Beatitude '."—Phita- 

Short Chats With Learners. 

F. lirilfn, Lamar, 

KKHAPS some 

young peopU 


have been endenvoring 
to btDefit by the sug- 
gestions otTered in 
this column, are be- 
^iinning to think they 
have liad enough for 
the present in the 

have hnd them steadily 



- " limbering up " 

, capitals detntchcd 

combination, small 

-^ letters, etc. Well, these 

things do become a triHe monotODOue, not 

to say tiresome; but did you ever accom- 


tion. It 'is true that other advanced 
teachers do not go so far, but all agree 
that proper drills are the foundation of 
good writing. The elder Spencer had a 
way of making hia pupiU practice a 
single exercise for days at a time, and no 
doubt the pupil got heartily sick of it be- 
fore he was through, but practice he had 
to and practice he did. 

Well, I have said enough to impress 
you with the importance I attach to this 
matter, and it is hardly necessary to add 
that we shall meet many more of these 
movement exeicises before otir journey is 
over. This month, however, we are going 

Ribbe is not intended to be copied as to 
style, etc. ; it is given as a 6oe example of 
body writing. You will probably be un- 
able to do as well by many degrees, but 
that needn't trouble you. There was 
doubtless a time when Mr. Kibbe couldn't 
do as well as you can. It was his pluck 
and patience that brought him to bis 
present position of one of the best of 
American penmen in all branches of the 

in composition and arrangement, 
as well as in penmanship. Let us suppose 
that you want to ordgr four hundred and 




/ < ^/ 


By H. W. Kibbe, Boston. 

plisb anything in the world worth speak- 
ing of without going through with this 
experience i Somehow, success always 
comes in that way. 

Instead of overdoing these 
we ore really just getting a fair start. I 
know eminently successful teachers who 
don't allow their pupils to write a word 
for a year or two. It is always drill, drill, 

til all the writing muscles are brought into 
a state of obedient elasticity, ready to 
respond to the writer's will in respect of 
the slightest motion or change of direc- 

to have a Httle diversion. I have seen, 
from many specimens sent in, that some of 
you have practiced very faithfully — and it 
isn't a ditbcult matter to tell by these 
specimens who have and who have not. 
Some of you have reached the stage where 
you can make these exercises smoothly 
and with apparent ease. Let mc sec what 
you can dr. at a test of continued writing. 
In other words, I want to try you on a 
business letter The writing should be in 
your natural hand — not in imitation of any 
set model. Write, don't draw. Use black 
ink and white paper, wide ruled paper 
I preferred. The accompanying cut by Mr. 

fifty barrets of Eagle brand flour from the 
Empire Flour Company of Rochester, N. 
Y. You are running an account with the 
company, and want these goods charged to 
you, at the same time inclosing check for 
^aOSO.TS to S(]UQre back accounts. As an 
alert merchant should, you have watched 
the market closely and have observed a 
downward tendency in the price of whuat 
since you have had quotations on flour 
from the Empire Company. Now. give us 
just the lettiT you would write in such 
ending it in state your 
ind whether you have 
: kind in the prepara 

circumstances. Ii 
age and advantagi 
had assistance of t 

tion of the letter. Any time before Octo- 
ber 15 will do to get the letter here. 

In the June Jouknai. I offered a gross of 
Amf's' Best Pens for the best exercises 
made from Prof. Isaacs' models in that 
issue by the young people interested in 
this department. Five of the best re- 
spouses have bpen from E. M. Cruse, Chi- 
cago; F. O. Putnam, South Omaha, Neb.; 
C. C. Freeman, Benson, W. Va.; J. G. 
Johnson, Elk Garden, Va. (winner in a 
previous contest); and Henry S. Gourlay, 
Buffalo, N. Y. All the work is good, that 
of the two last named a little better than 
the rest, and so even in (piality that I 
knew of no better plan than to divide the 
prize between them. 

Old Bank Notes. 

How nirle Snm JDlniioseM of Hli 
IVorn-Oiit BlIlN. 

Every one likes, not only money, but 
fresh money; in fact, a fresh, clean, crisp 
note always gives an additional thrill of 
pleasure. Besides that, torn, spoiled 
money, which has passed through thou- 
sands of hands, which has been thumbed 
by a person afflicted with contagious dis- 
eases, and well lingered by the "great un- 
washed " is a constant menace to public 
health. As the notes run out Uncle Sam 
has them redeemed at. his Treasury, and 
after they are all counted and packed in 
bundles of so many thousands each, they 
are stnt down to the *'macerater" in the 

The macerater is a huge oven-like affair 
capable of holding about a ton of paper. 
It opens only at the top by means of a trap 
door. This door is fitted with three locks 
and a key of each is given to a different 
otlicer In the Treasury. This necessitates 
the presence of all three officers at the ma- 
cerating of the money, acd also at the 
opening of the oven, as it is impossible to 
open the door without all three keys. 

In the macerater the money is chewed 
and steamed into a grayish-green pulp. 
This is afterward placed in large stone 
vats. From here it is sold to men who 
mold it into small busts of public men, 
paper weights and miniature animals. 
One flgure of the Washington monument 
recently made, which is only about a foot 
and a half high, is said to contain at least 
$3,000,000 worth of Uncle Sam's bank 
uoles.^PfiihJdpfim Times. 

Read Before Signing. 
Among the i>ithy sayings of a well- 
known German philosopher and reader 
occurs the following: "Sign no paper 
without reading it." In these days of 
education, enlightenment and progress, 
such a caution would liardly seem neces- 
sary to any person in the full possession of 
his faculties; yet it is astonishing how 
many people there are, including good 
business men, who attach their signatures 
to papers or documents whose contents 
may have a serious bearing upon them- 
selves or their affairs, with scarcely a 
glance at their contents. Carelessness in 
failing to acquaint themselves with the 
contents ol a paper before signing it has 
worked incalculable harm to thousands of 
well iutcntioned people. It is a good 
thing, therefore, to bear in mind continu- 
ously the above quotation, particularly 
with respect to such papers as express or 
imply anything in the nature of a contract 
or a legal obligation.— A'j-c/t«ritf'-. 

Tommy Join 

1 pair of glovf 

Furnisher: ' 

, I want to get 

liloves (or grown : 



The aiinouDcement nas made in the 
August Journal that Prof. IlcoryC. Speo- 
ccr of Waiihiogtoo would tuke charge of 
this dcpartineat, )>cf:nnniog with thin issue. 
Only n few wecko af{0 wc were disciissiog 
with Prof. Spencer the detniU of the con- 
duct of the depurtment, and be seemed 
much impressed with its possibihtics for 
good to the teachers of writing in public 
nnd graded schooln, and through tbem to 
tlie millions of young Americans who are 
being trained in xuch institutions. Hav- 
ing accepted the responsibilities of leader- 
ship, Prof. Spencer at once entered upon 
bis task with the eurncstucss and enthusi- 
asm characterifitic of bim. Much prelimi- 
nary work bad been done, but the first 
batch of "copy " bad scarcely reached Thk 
Journal office when the announcement of 
Prof. Spencer's sudden death came with a 
«bock. We print elsewhere a sketch of 
this distinguished member of a family 
whose name in millions of homes stands 
for the best in what is indisputably an 
important factor in every person's educa- 

Id view of these circumstances the 
Editor of The Journal has thought best 
to depart somewhat from the plans that 
bod been laid down for the department in 
this issue, putting over matter that Prof, 
Spencer had obtained from other teachers, 
and giving the space to his last public ex- 
position of the subject to which he Iiad 
devoted so much attention. No arrange- 
ment, we are sure, could be more accept- 
able to the writing teachers of this 
country, in business colleges as well as 
public schools. We leave Prof. Spencer's 
announcement of the acceptance of his 
new duties just as it came from his pen 
less than a month since. 

Professional Exchange. 

FfUotr Trarhem : 

In accepting the position of leader, for 
a term, it is with the (ii-Mre and expecta- 
tion that yon will freely send to The 
Journal the producis of your thought, 
experience and investigation, for exchange 
through these (columns, which have been 
cordially opened to you all. 

You are earnestly invited to thus ex- 
change professional commodities, each 
teacher inspired by the noble desire to 
promote the good of all, and all to pro- 
mote the good of each. 

There is 4 special demand for your '* pet " 
ideas, briefly expressed. Send tbem in 
without delay, please, and thus make your 
exchange both lively and profitable. 
Fraternally yours, 

Henrt C. Spencer. 


of Trti 


[From Pro/ H. C. Spnictr'n Talk to Busi- 
nfw Ttaehrrs at Chautauqua, July, ''Oi.'] 
Our subject to-day will include, to some 
extent, the employing of special teachers 
or directors in schools and colleges, but 
we will speak on the general subject of 
penmanship in public schools and busmess 
colleges. Penmanship has its branches — 
business writing is the most essential and 
really the only branch of penmanship in 
which the business college has special or 
direct interest. And we may say the same 
of the public school. It should deal only 
with business writing — that kind of writ- 

ing which is useful in business, profes- 
sional and social life. Another branch is 
ornameota) writing; another is pen letter- 
ing; another pen drawing; another otl- 
hand Nourishing. All of these branches 
of penmanship are combined in the useful 
and beautiful art of engrossing, or artistic 
penmanship, which has been developed in 
these days to a higher standard probably 
than ever before, because it has fallen 
largely into the bands of those who give it 
their special attention and apply it to its 
proper purposes. 

Krnlutfm, of Moriern Itumftiriiit nXfiftf/. 

We are in the closing decade of the 
nineteenth century. ■ Some of us will, 
perhaps, be looking into the next century 
and doing work then. At the beginning 
of this century we had the coarse round 
hand. I do not know that I need to do any 
of this writing in your presence. It is fa- 
miliar to you; still, when we speak of a 
thing, if we can present it to the eye it 
makes a stronger impression. 

Here we write on the board the words 
in the old style. While they called it 
round band, they did not round the capi- 
tals, they rounded the small letters and 

of light and shade there. Of course, you 
know what the semi-angular turn is — a 
short turn — a medium between the round 
hand turn and the sharp angular hand 
joining. In the old days they wrote with 
the quill pen, 00 smoother paper than we 
now use generally, and when the semi- 
angular writing was ushered in the quill 
pen was still in use. In my early lessons 
in writing we wrote with quill pens. My 
father made the pens for the whole school. 
I saw bun do that day after day. I am 
glad I cime into the profession as teacher 
late enough to escape all that. The steel 
pens which were introduced in this coun- 
try along in the ■40'3 were in imitation of 
the quill pens, but not as good as the steel 
pens tve have now. This semi-angular 
style of writing prevails in the public 
schools to-day. It is composed, as you 
see, of fine strokes and shaded strokes 
that are in contrast with each other. 

There is a distinction to be made, ladies 
and gentlemen, between tTiis writing and 
that which is approved and current in the 
business colleges of this country. The 
busiuess colleges seized upon the semi- 
angular writing in the 'oO's. They began 
their career in earnest about that time, 
and they helped to spread this band every- 
where. The public schools were slow to 
let go of that round hand. 

Do you know that progress does not 
often begin where people are bound down 
by official supervision ? Such conditions 

result of the agitation. And so it is with 
the use of the rough papers and harsh pens, 
and what is more, the firm grip iiiron the 
pen taken in the effort to rush over the 
paper in mad haste. There is another 
point to be considered in this connection. 
As people generally live, they are not in 
condition to do these things without ex- 
hausting their nerve force, because they 
do not live right. We should so live that 
our stomachs will never develop in advance 
of our chests and heads. Obesity indicates 
a diseased body from wrong living. In 
the temperance reform, lecturers pose 
as examples of the evils of intemperance, 
and that is my attitude in this matter. I 
pose as a man who for years was engaged 

digging bis grave with the 
his friends. But a grand and good woman 
put her hand on my shoulder one day and 
said ■ "Look here; had you not better 
change your mode of living ? Look into 
this matter." I bad not thought about it. 
She arrested my attention before it was too 
late. I abandoned the course I was pursu- 
ing and restored nerve and muscle, sight 
and hearing, and acquired a new interest 
in life by changing my mode of living, 
and oidering it in conformity with hygienic 
laws. I talk to teachers about this thing, 
because, confined in your school rooms, as 
many of yon are from morning to night, 
and part of the night also, and eating 
your three and four meals a day and using 
your brains you are liable to degenerate 
physically. Come down to two meals a 
day; select wholesome, nourishing food, 
avoid all condiments and stimulants, work 
less, exercise more, and prcsi-rve this grand 
instrument of the soul — the body. People 
who are in good physical coodttiou are not 

flattened the ovals of the capitals. There 
is a little inconsistency about that. This 
hand-writing came to us from the mother 
country, and continued as the basis of 
current writing during the first quarter of 
this century. Then there was a gradual 
reaching out after a shorter method of 
getting at a current hand, and so far as 
my father's teaching was concerned, in 
early years, his chief business was to fight 
this round hand as the basis of the current 
hand, saying to the people, "You can learn 
your current band from the beginning." 
In the latter part of the first half of this 
century, the semi-angular hand came in 
and the people began to see that they 
could learn that directly. The style is 
familiar to you all, but in order to com- 
pare the two hands, I write the word 



on the board. Here we have consider- 
able fullnew as to capitals, and a better 
oval than in capitals of the coarse hand, 
but a different character of cnrves and 
turns in the small letters. While in the 
old coarse hand all the down strokes are 
shaded, in the semi-angular hand shading 
is largely omitted. There is a distribution 

are not favorable to it; it is only where 
men step aside from beaten piths and, see- 
ing something better, have the independ- 
ence and courage to say, "There is abetter 
way," and have the liberty of teaching it, 
that progress is secured. That is what 
happened when this semi angular writing 
was developed and introduced in this 
country. There has been coming into use 
in our business colleges during the last 
ten years, as you all know, important modi- 
fications of the semi-angular writing, divest- 
ing it of the fine lines and heavy shades. 
Tbe style, so far as curves, angles and 
turns are concerned has not been essen- 
tially changed. Many of us in the busi- 
ness colleges are not using ns fine, as elas- 
tic pens as *e did. We are using pens 
that make a more distinct line, that do not 
as readily give under the hand, that make 
lighter shade. The writing may be re- 
garded by some as less attractive, less 
artistic, but it is better adapted to busi- 
ness, because it is easier to wTite, takes 
less time, and is more easily read. 

//yi/.VH.V i;ve„utln„n. 

I wish to refer to the matt^ of materials 
briefly in connection with this point. Tbe 
wearing out of the hand, tbe palsy of tbe 
arm, which has come in with rough papers 
and harsh pens, did not exist when the old 
quill pen was in vogue. I saw a man one 
day stenciling sign^. You knoiv a stencil 
is placed on the surface upon which the 
sign is to be made, and then the color rub- 
bed in vigorously, causing a sliaking of the 
arm. That man worked the whole after- 
noon stenciling the signs, and finally his 
arm hung at bis side almost useless, as the 

so liable as others to the 
We have that disease on every hand in the 
Government departments at Washington, 
where so many men and women are en- 
gaged in ppu and brain work, and they 
consult me in regard to it. The subject 
has become an important one at tbe 
National Capital. 

Let me call your attention to another 
matter. During the years '87 and '88 it 
seemed to me that writing bad reached a 
condition in our country that made it de- 
sirable to take soundings; or, to state it in 
another way, that we needed to take a 
concensus of preferences, particularly in 
regard to tbe capital letters. I engaged 
in the work by consulting, by means of 
questions and answers, one hundred and 
twelve of the adepts and teachers of this 
country, people whom I considered enti- 
tled to be coesuUed on the subject. The 
result of that investigation appeared in 
our convention report of 1889, but it was 
merely a leaf of capitals inserted with- 
out comment or explanation. Nobody un- 
derstood why it was there. I suppose 
whatever explanations had been intended 
to go with it were overlooked. So I will 
present, with your kind permission, those 
letters that were chosen. Understand, we 
offered for tbe choice of tbe one hundred 
and twelve teachers and adepts the various 
current styles of letters, six or eight of 
each capital. [The speaker then placed 
on the board tbe accompanying set of capi- 
tals, making appropriate comments upon 
each as he wrote in tbe presence of the 

This is an excellent set of capitals. 
The shading is not an essential feature of 
these Utters; thej can be more readily 
taught and leurned without shade. 

I DOW illustrate another result of this 
concensus of opinion. Vou know we 
have what is called the full form of 
writinir small letters, and the abbreviated 
script forms, suoh as Mr. Lyon was show- 
ing on the board the other day, when he 
omitted initial and final curves. My 
brother, P. It. Spencer, is an advocate of 
that kind of writing. He regards it as 
most legible, more easily written, and it 
suits him best. His pupils are very apt 
to fall in with bis views, because he is a 
positive teacher. That kind of abbrevi- 
ated writing in the preference? expressed, 
received nearly as many voles as the full 
form. [The speaker here illustrated the 
full forms with all initial and final curves 

Although the abbreviated writing has 
been advocated b'Jt a few years, compara- 
tively, it has rapidly gained ground. But 
the writing which received the larqeat 
number of preferences was what we call 
the partially abbreviated writing, and of 
that I will give joii a sample. (Mr. 
Spencer here wrote on the board the accom- 
panying sentence containing all' the letters 
of the alphabet as an illustration]: 

This style saves from ten to fifteen per 
cent, of the labor required in writing and 
valuable time and energy in teaching and 

There has been considerable said in these 
meetings in regard to engraved copies. If 
a copy is made by an engraver who has no 
skill with the pen himself, no feeling for 
writing, but simply engraves in his own 
way for copies, matter only the wording 
of which has been indicated to him, those 
copies will very likely lack the spirit aud 
ease that is required for good copies. But 
when a master takes a pen or i)encil, and 
there fiows from his hand the writing that 
is in his annd and that be uses lu corres- 
pondence and accounts, and teaches to 
others, and the engraver expresses it, I 
see no objection to such copies. I do not 
see why tney are not essentially equal to 
the original copies of the master who pro- 
duced them. I recollect very well in 1854 
going by my father's side from school to 
school in the city of Buffalo, and in his 
portfolio he carried for the children all 
the copies that they used, and which were 
written by his own hand. And I thought 
then when I had to sit as assistant in exe- 
cuting those copies, life is too short for 
that kind of work. I was glad when we 
found a way to do it as well by the aid of 
the engraver and the printer. 

I hardly need reiterate to this audience 
the essentials of writing, legibility, ease 
and Older. These are known everywhere 
to be iho essentials of business writing, 
and it is equally well known that these 
essentials are reached in teaching and 
learning under three heads : Position, 
movement and form. And here, ladies 
and gentlemen, I propose to give you a 
practical lesson in position. You haveu't 
any deeks, you haven't any material, but 
you have chaire, and you are here your- 
selves, and we will teach you a few min- 
utes. You have had many a lesson on 
position and movement, and are going to 
have another one now. I believe we 
should come in proper relation to our 
work, from head to foot. This instru- 
ment, the body, tbr6ugh which the live 
man within performs bis work must be 
brought in proper relation to work that is 
to be performed, whatever it may be. 
Please sit facing me. We sit facing the 
desk in writiug, as in taking our meals, 
reading our books, papers, and so on. 
Position facing the desk accommodates the 
eyes, the chest, the shoulders, the spine, 
in fact, the whole man. You will please 
rise and stand at the side of your chairs; 
stand with your right hand on the back of 
CDair. Teach your pupils to stand prop- 
erly, so that one part of the body supports 
another. Don't let them stand with the 
middle of the body pushed forward, chest 
depressed, or one shoulder higher thtu the 
other, etc. Eucourage them to grow into 
the true forms of roeu and women. Lift 
up the chest, rest on the balls of the feet. 
Let hands and arms hang. Now, stand 
with one foot a little forward of the other, 
the weight upon one foot as if ready to 
step forward. Place the chair so that the 
fiont of Its seat is directly under, or a 
little awuy from the front edge of the 
desk. You haven't any desks here, but 
cau imagine you have them. We go into 
school rooms where chairs are used by 
students in writing, and find them pushed 
way under the desks so that the writers 
have no use of arras and can hardly breathe. 

Never allow the front edge of the chair to 
project under the desk. Now. please 
step directly in front of the chair nod 
stand, one foot in advance of the other; 
never place heels in line when preparing 
to sit. Now, lower yourselves on the 
rear foot, but come down lightly; don't 
jar the brain by dropping with a thud 
upon the chair. If you wish to get con- 
trol of any part of the body you must 
practice for it. 

Sit well back on the chair, let the hands 
fall at the side, lift the chest. Don't lean 
against the back of the chair. Bring 
hands to Direct your attention to 
the right foot. Press down upon it and 
lean forward' over that foot, slowly, as I 
count 1. 3, 3, 4, and back as I count 1. 2, 
3 straight. Now, over the left foot; for- 
ward, 1, 2, 3, 4; back, 1, 2, 3, straight; 
press down on both feet, lean forward, 1, 
2, 3, 4; back, 1, 2, 3, straight. I will 
not cat-ry this any further. What is the 
object of this exercise? To obtain control 
of the feet and the body. Would you do 
this just once to show a class how? Prac- 
tice it at the beginning of each writing 
lesson until the body obeys the will of the 
writer in that respect. Now, bring the 
hands and arms forward over the desk, so 
that the middle of the forearm comes 
directly over the edge of the desk, and 
let your hands fall limp from wrist. Gently 
shake the hands in this position, the arms 
being the handles. Muscles are rigid at 

one form of each, giving liberty later to 
choose others. Some teachers say dogmat- 
ically, " Idon'tuae principles." Weteach 
the principles. The letters are easily 
resolved into seven elementary forms. 

The principles are helpful in identifying 
the constituent parts of letters and cor- 
recting faults of formation ; hence, we 
use them. We have charts of all the let- 
ters, small and capital, showing them so 
that one may see at a glauce the propor- 
tions of the letters as shown upon this dia- 
gram. You can thus see proportions at a 
glance. Forms must be memorized. One 
should be abl» to reproduce the alphabet 
from the mind at will. Learners should 
be specially exercised in thinking the al- 
phabet. Old Senator Wadeof Ohio, then 
Judge Wade, came to my father's office at 
one time, and said, " Mr. Spencer, I wish 
you would make me a capital Z, I never 
can think how to make that letter. My 
father gave him the Z, and he carried it in 
his vest pocket, and whenever he wanted 
to make a Z he would take that modtl out 
and look at it. But there were other de- 
fects in the Senator's education. He 
didn't know how to spell. When his 
partner wanted him to write carefully so 
that it could be read, it was found that 
Wade's spelling was not according to 
standard authorities. He made this ex- 
pression in regard to spelling. I don't 
suppose any of you will adopt the form of 
expression, or the sentiment expressed: 

Pn,f. H.;xni C. Spenr, 

first, but soon become relaxed and pliant. 
Now, turn your hands over, palms up, 
fingers together. ■ We wish to get control 
of the hand; "begin at the end joints of 
the fingers and gently close the hands. 
Then open again. Make easy work of it. 
We have not time to go through more. 
Now, imagine you have paper in front of 
you on your imaginary desks, and bring 
the left hand down on the corner of it and 
slightly stitTen the elbow to maintain the 
body in position. That is a convenient, 
natural brace. Close your right hand 
again. We wish to bring the fingers in 
position for writing. Open the first 
finger, let end of the thumb cross it be- 
tween the middle joints; open the second 
finger, not quite as far as the first; open 
the third aod fourth fingers just a little. 
Now, usina the pronator muscle, let us 
turn the arm and hand slowly until the 
back of the hand mces the ceiling above. 
Now, let your hand come down upon the 
nails of the third and fourth fingers. 
Using the large muscles of the shoulder 
and arm, move forward and back and for- 
ward and back; right and left and right 
and left; around and around; compound, 
compound, (like horizontal figure eight, 
larf»e) and so on, until you secure ideas of 
movement. These are simple suggestions; 
we cannot go into them more thoroughly 

We use in teaching movement only a 
few exercises. There is a tendency among 
teachers to run into too many complicated 
movement drills. If you can do your 
work with a few exercises it is better than 
to have a large number of them. 

The first series of copy books my good 
father made containtd movemeul exercises, 
and school officials said they were flour- 
ishes. The time will come, said the 
author, when the people will appreciate 
these things, and it has come. 

We teach the simple forms of capitals, 

" Spelling " he said, " is small busi- 

Spertaltatg tn llir Vnii. 

Why are the business colleger in ad- 
vance of the public schools in business 
writing ? I have given as one reason, that 
they have more freedom, more independ- 
ence. I will give you another: Business 
college teachers are specialists. A special- 
ist is a man who gives his attention chiefly 
to one branch of the work. The world 
is greatly indebted to specialists. Set a 
man to thinking and working in a certain 
direction, and valuable ideas will flow 
iuto hi? brain ; he will begin to express 
them; work them out, and in time he 
becomes a specielist. We do not really 
originate, we live by influx. Ideas come 
to us if we work in the right spirit, in the 
desire to benefit our fellow men. (Aj)- 
plause). Specialdirectors of writing should 
be employed in public schools everywhere, 
in order that they may assist the regular 
teachers in their work; show them how to 
deil with this art, how to teach it. how to 
use it. Yes, how to use it. Because 
writing is destroyed by the improper use 
of it in general lessons. If there is only 
good writiug durmg the special Itssons 
the teaching goes for naught. What ha^ 
we, Mr. President, to do with writing iu 
the public schools ? Writiug should be 
taught in public schools as it is taught in 
business colleges, and m business colleges 
as it is taught in public schools, when 
properly taught in both places. We use 
in our own classes copy books that have 
with them convenient practice paper. 
One man says, I would not have a copy- 
book anywhere. It is a curse. Another 
says, what would you use ? Loose paper ? 
You want both. You want the carelessly 
careful and carefully careless work. You 
want both. You don't need miny copies. 
With from twenty-four to fifty copy lines 

you can teach the whole art of writing. 
We always have in business college classes, 
in our regular course, students who have 
special aptitude for penmaoship, and we 
should teach them in such a i?ny that they 
may become qualified to teach othets. 
What interest have we in the public 
schools ? Nearly all our pupils come from 
the public schools. They are prepared 
for us there They come to us with writ- 
ing habits bred in bone, nerve, and mus- 
cle, and we are called upon to reficnerate 
them. Let us help the public schools to 
well trained directors of writing, ao that 
tly'ir pupils will come to us better pre- 
pared for business education. 

I thank you for your attention, ladies 
and gentlemen, and for your kind indul- 
gence. (Continued applause). 

Death of Henry C. Spencer. 

The announcement in the New York 
City papers of August 31st gave The Pes- 
.man's Akt JorRNAL the first news that 
one of the celebrated Speocerian Authors, 
Henry C, Spencer of Washington, D. C, 
had on the previous day passed from this 
to another world. 

On Monday, August 17th, Mr. and Mrs. 
Spencer returned to Washington from 
Glen Echo, both of them ill with malarial 
fever. August 20th Henry wrote in pencil 
his last letter to his twin brother, Harvey, 
in New York, from which we quote the 

"On Monday night the fever started 
on me, and I have had it eighteen hours 
out of every twenty-four, without chills. 
It worries me afternoon and night almost 
constantly. We are under medical treat- 
ment, but have not found relief yet." 
The letter closes with these words: 
"I can hardly hold my head up." 
Saturday, the 29th, his sister, wife of 
General R. D. Mussey, wrote a brother, 
Mr, Lyman P. Spencer of Newark, N. J., 
informing him of Henry's probably fatal 
illness, and stating that his mind remained 
clear and that he waa conscious of his con- 
dition and accepted it with peaceful resig- 

His faith, as au earnest seeker after re- 
ligious light in the New Church for the 
past twenty five years, led him to regard 
entering upon the future life as a gain to 
those who sought to live aright in this 

As a Mason he was a member of the 
same lodge as President Garfield in Wash- 
ington and was an exemj)lar of its best 
teachings and principles. He was also 
connected with other associations, local 
and national, social and charitable. 

As an author his name became a house- 
hold word, and millions of the youth of 
our land acknowledged their ini^ebtedness 
to him — the name Spencerian, bright and 
potent in his early days, receiving new 
luster and renewed vigor through his tire- 
less, conscientious and intelligent efforts. 
As a teacher tliouaauds owe their ad- 
vancement to his personal oid and guid- 
ance. In all the departments of the Federal 
Government as well as in the various chan- 
nels of business in the principal cities many 
are found who by Mr, Spencer were quali- 
fied to meet the responsibilities of their 

He was a terse writer of good English 
and an excellent public speaker, and like 
his honored father he possessed those qual- 
ities of heart and mind which inspired in 
those who knew him the warmest affection 
for him in life and the sincereet grief in 
his death. 

Of the five Spencer brothers, sons of 
Piatt R. Spencer, Henr^ was the third. 
He was born at Geneva, Ohio, in 1838. 
While still a young man he married Miss 
Sara Andrews of Bath, N. Y., who, with 
iwo grown sons, Leonard Garfield and 
Henry C, survive him. 

Mrs. Sara A. Spencer is a woman of 
marked strength of character and iotd- 
Icctual resources. She has been actively 
engaged with her husband in conduciing 
the Spencerian Business College, Wash- 
ington, for a quarter of a century, and the 
work there will go on as before. 

Uncle Tom Barker. 

the Atlant/i CongtUution.] 


He had been wild 
and reckltsu and 
feared not God nor 
regarded man, but 
one dav at a camp- 
ing, while 
BiHhop Ga-stoo was 
sbaking up tbc sid- 
iitra nod scorchiog them over the infernal 
pit, Tom got alarmed, and before the 
meeting wan over he professed religion 
mid became a zealous, outspoken convert, 
and declared bis intention of going forth 
into the world preaching the gospel. He 
wuK terribly in earnest, for he said he had 
loHt a power of time and must make it up. 
Tom was a rough talker, but he was a 
good one, and knew right smart of 
•■ seripter," and a good many of the old- 
fiabioned hymns by heart. The confer- 
ence thought he was a pretty good fellow 
to send out into the border country among 
the settlers, and so Tom straddled his old 
tlea-bitten gray, and in due time was 
circuit riding in North Mississippi. 

In course of time Tom acquired notor- 
iety and from his strong language and 
stronger geslutes, and his muscular ele- 
iiuenee, they called him "Old Sledge 
Hammer," andufter awhile, "Old Sledge," 
fur short. Away down iu one corner of 
his territory there was n blaeksmith shop 
nnd a wagon shop and a whisky shop 
and a post-oHice at Bill Jones's cross roads, 
and Bill kept all of them, and was known 
far and wide as "Devil Bill Jones," so 
IIS to distinguish bim from " Squire Bill," 
the magistrate. Devil Bill bad sworn that 
no [ireachfr should ever toot a horn or 
sing a hymn in the settlemeni, and if any 
of the cussed byprocrites ever dared to 
stop at the crossroads, he'd make him 
dance a hornpipe and sing a hymn and 
whip him besidfs. And Bill Jones meant 
just what be said, for he had a mortal hate 
for the men of God. It was reasonably 
supposed that Bill could and would do 
what he said, for his trade at the anvil 
bud made him strong, and everybody 
knew that he had 08 much brute courage 
OS was ncceysflry. And so Uncle Tom 
was advised to take roundance and never 
tackle the crossroads. He accepted this 
for a time aud left the people to the bad 
inflvicnce of Devil Bill, but it seemed to 
him he was not doing the Lord's will, and 
whenever he thought of the women and 
children living in darkness and growing 
up in iiilidclity, he would groan. 

t)nc night be prayed over it with great 
earnestness, and vowed to do the Lord's 
will if the Lord would give bim light, and 
it seemed to him as he rose from his knees 
that there waa no longer any doubt— he 
must go. Uncle Tom never dallied about 
anything when his mind was made up. 
lie went right at it like killing snakes; 
and so next morning as a " nabor " passed 
on bis way to Bill's shop, Uncle Tom said : 
" My friend, will you please carry a 
message to Bill Jones for me ? Do you 
tell him that if the Lord is willin', I will 
be at the crossroads to preach next Satur- 
day at eleven o'clock, and I am shore the 
Lord is williu'. Tell him to please norate 
it in the settlemi-nt about, and ax the 
women and children to come. Tell Bill 
Jones I will stay at his bouse, God willin'. 
and I'ni shore he's willin', and I'll preach 
Sunday, too. it things git along bar- 

When Bill Jones got the message he 
was amazed, astounded, and his indigna- 
tion knew no bounds. He raved and 
cursed at the "onsull" aa he called it— 
the " oneulting mvMagc of ' Old Sledge'" 
—and he swore ihal bu would hunt him 
up. and whip bim, for be knowed tbut be 
wouldn't dare to come to the cro&sroads. 


But the "nabors'* whispered it around 
that "Old Sledge" would come, for he 
was never known to make an appointment 
and break it, and there was an old borse 
thief that used to run with Murrel's gang 
wbo said he used to know Tom Barker 
when he was a sinner and bad seen bim 
fight, and he was much of a man. 

So it spread like wild fire that "Old 
Sledge" was- coming, and Devil Bill was 
"gwine" to whip bim and make him 
dance and sing a "bimc" and treat to a 
gallon of peacb brandy besides. 

Devil Bill bad his enemies, of course, 
for he was a bard man, and one way or 
another had gobbled up all of the surplus 
of the " naborbood " and had given noth- 
ing in exchange but whisky, and these 
enemies bad long hoped for somebody to 
come and turn him down. They, too, cir- 
culated the astounding news, and with- 
ou: committing themselves to either 
party said that something would break 
loose on Saturday at the crossroads and 
that "Old Sledge" or the devil would 
have to go under. 

On Friday the settlers began to drop 
into the crossroads under pretense of busi- 
ness, but really to get the bottom facts of 
the rumors that were afloat. 

Devil Bill knew full well what they 
came for, and he talked and cursed more 
furiously than usual, and swore that any- 
body wbo would come expecting to see 
"Old Sledge" to-morrow was an infernal 
fool, for be wasn't acoming. He laid 
bare his strong arms and shook bis long 
hair, and said he wished the lying, deceiv- 
ing hypocrite would come, for it had been 
nigh on to fourteen years since he had 
made a preachpr dance. 

Saturday morning by nine o'clock the set- 
tlers began togatber. They cameonfootand 
on horseback and in carts— men, women and 
children — and before 11 oYlock there were 
more people at the cross-roads than had ever 
been there before. Bill Jones was mad at 
their credulity, but he bad no eye to busi- 
ness, aud kept behind his counter and sold 
more whisky in an hour than he had sold 
in a month. As the appointed hour drew 
near the settlers began to look down the 
long, straight road that "Old Sledge" 
would come, if be came at all, and every 
man whose head came in sight just over 
the rise of the distant hill waa closely 

More than once tbey said : " Yonder be 
comes; that's him, shore." But no— it 

Some half a dozen had old bull's-eye 
silver watches, and tbey compared time, 
and just at lO.Ijii o'clock the old horse 
thief exclaimed: 

" I see Tom Barker arisin' of the bill. I 
hain't seed him for eleven years, but gin- 
tlemcn, that ar' him, or I'm a liar." And 

As he got nearer and nearer, a voice 
seemed to be coining with bim, and some 
said: "He's talkin" to himself." Another 
said: " He's a talkin" to God Almighty," 
and another said: "I'll be blamed if be 
ain't a-praying," but very soon it was de- 
cided that be was " singin' of a hime." 

Bill Jones was soon advised of all this, 
and, coming up to Ibe front, said: 
" rftrned if he ain't singing before I axed 
him, but I'll make bim sing another tune 
till he is tired. I'll pay him for his on- 
suUing message. I'm not a-gwine tu kill 
bim, boys. I'll leave life in his rotten old 
carcass, but that's all. If any of you'u 
want to hear *01d Sledge' preach, you'll 
have to go ten miles from the roads to do 

Slowly and solemly the preacher came. 
As he drew near he narrowed down his 
tune and looked kindly upon the crowd. 
He was a massive man in frame, and had a 

heavy suit of dark brown hair; but his 
face was clean shaved, and showed a nose 
and lips and chin of firmness and great 

"Look at bim, boys, and* mind your 
eye," said the horse thief. 

"Where will I find my friend Bill 
Jones i" inquired "Old Sledge. " 

All round they pointed him to the man. 

Riding up close, he said: "My friend 
and brother, the good Lord has sent me 
to you, and I ask your hospitality for my- 
self and my btast," and he slowly dis- 
mounted and faced bis foe, as though ex- 
pecting a kind reply. 

The crisis had come and Bill Jones met it 
" You infernal old hypocrite; you cussed 
old shaved-faced scoundrel; didn't you 
know that I bad swored an oath that I 
would make you sing and dance aud whip 
70U besides, if you ever dared to pizeo 
these cross roads with your shoe tacks '{ 
Now, sing — you sing, and dance as you 
sing," and he emphasized bis command 
with a ringing slap with his open hand 
upon the parson's face. 

" Old Sledge " recoiled with pain aud 

Recovering in a moment, he said : 
" Well, Brother Jones, I did uot expect 
so warm a welcome, but if this be your 
crossroads' manners I suppose I must 
sing," and as Devil Bill gave him another 
slap on hi;5 other jaw be began with ; 

" My soul, be on thy guard." 
And with his long arm suddenly and 
swiftly gave Devil Bill an open-bander 
that nearly knocked bim olT his feet, while 
the parson continued to sing in a splendid 

" Ten thousand foes arise." 

Never was a lion more aroused to frenzy 
than was Bill Jones. With his powerful 
arm he made at " Old Sledge" as if to anni- 
hilate him with one blow, and many horrid 
oaths, but the parson fended off the stroke 
as easily us a practiced boxer, and with 
his left hand dealt Bill a settler on his 
peepers as he continued to sing: 

" Oh, wat*.-h, and figbt, and pray. 
The battle ne'er give o'er." 

But Jones was plucky to despcral ion, and 
the settlers were watching with bated 
breath. The crisis was at hand, and be 
squared himself, and his clenched fists flew 
thick and fast upon the parson's frame, and 
for a while disturbed his equilibrium and 
bis song. But he rallied quickly and began 
the otfenaive, as he sang: 

" Ne'er tbiuk the victory won, 
Nor lay thiue armnr down." 

He backed his adversary squarely to the 
wall of the shop, and seized bim by the 
throat, and mauled him as he sang: 
" Figlit on, uiysouJ. till death." 

Well, the long and short of it was, that 
" Old Sledge " whipped him and bumbled 
him to the ground and then lifted him up 
and helped to restore bim, and begged a 
thousand pardons. 

When Devil Bill had retired to his house 
and was being cared for by bis wife, " Old 
Sledge " mounted on a box in front of the 
grocery and preached righteousness, and 
temperance, and judgment to come to that 

He closed his solemn discourse with a 
brief history of his own sinful life before 
his conversion, and his humble work for 
the Lord ever since, and he besought his 
hearers to stop and think. " Stop, poor 
sinner, stop and think. "he cried in alarm- 
ing tones. 

There were a few men and many women 
in that crowd whose eyes, long unused to 
the melting mood, dropped tears of re- 
pentance at the preacher's kind and ten- 
der exhortation. Bill Jones's wife, poor 
woman, had crept humbly into the out- 

skirts of the crowd, lor she bad long 
treasured the memories of her childhood, 
when, she, too, had gone with her good 
mother to hear preaching. In secret she 
had pined and lamented her husband's 
hatred for religion and for preachers. 
After she had washed the blood from his 
swollen and dressed his wounds she 
asked him if she might go down and 
hear the preacher. For a minute he was 
silent aud seemed to be dumb with amaze- 
ment. He had never been whipped before 
and had suddenly lost confidence iu him- 
self and his infidelity. 

"Go 'long, Sally," he answered; "if he 
can talk like he can fight and sing maybe 
the Lord did send him. It's all mighty 
strange tome," and begroaned in anguish. 
His animosity seemed to have changed 
into an anxious, wondering curiosity, and 
after Sally had gone he left his bed ood 
drew near lo the window where he could 

"Old Sledge" made an earnest, soul- 
reaching prayer, and his pleading with the 
Lord for Bill Jones's salvation and that of 
his wife and children reached the window 
where Bill was sitting and he heard it. 
His wife returned in tears and took a seat 
beside him. and sobbed her heart's dis- 
tress, but said nothing. Bill bore it for 
a while in thoughtful silence, and then 
putting his bruised and trembling hand in 
hers, said : " Sally, if the Lord sent 'Old 
Sledge ■ here, and maybe he did — I reckon 
you had better look after his horse." And 
sure enough "Old Sledge'' stayed there 
that night and held family prayer, and the 
next day he preached from the piazza to a 
great multitude, and sang his favorite 
hymn : 

" Am I a soldier of the cross." 

And when he got to the third verse bis 
untutored but muscular voice seemed to 
be lifted a little higher as he sang: 

" Sure I must figbt if I would reign; 
Increase my courage, Lord." 

Devil Bill was converted and became a 
changed man. He joined the church, and 
closed his grocery and helped to build a 
meeting house, and it was always said and 
believed that "Old Sledge" mauled the 
grace into his unbelieving soul, and it 
never would have got in any other way. * 

The Nantucket LIchlBlilp. 

No. I, Nantucket, New South Shoal, 
pitches and pluuges, rears and rolls, year 
in and year out, twenty-iour milts of! San- 
katy Head, Nantucket Island, with the 
broad ocean to the eastward, and rips aud 
breakers to the westward, northward, and 
southward. No. 1. Nantucket, New South 
Shoal, is a lightship— the most desolate 
and dangerous station jn the United States 
lighthouse establishment. Upon this toss- 
ing island, out of sight of land, exposed 
to the fury of every tempest, and without 
a message from home during all the stormy 
months of winter, aud sometimes even 
longer, ten men, braving the perils of wind 
and wave, and the worse terrors of isola- 
tion, trim the lamps whose light warns 
thousands of vessels from certain destruc- 
tion, and hold themselves ready to pave 
life when the warning is vain. When 
vessels have been driven belplcHsly upon 
the shoals over which the South Shoal 
Lightship stands guard, her ciew have 
not hesitated to lower their boat in seas 
which threatened every moment to stave 
or to engulf it, and to pull, often in the 
teeth of a furious gale, to the rescue of 
the shipwrecked, not only saving their 
lives, but afterward sharing with them, 
often to their own great discomfort, such 
cheer as the lightship^ affords. Yet who 
ever heard of a me*ial being awarded to 
the life savers of No. 1, Nantucket, New 
South Shoal i! — (Juntac Kohli in Antjuxi 


Gold F«nii Need a Real. 

"There, that pen is tired aod will h»vc 
to rest a month or so." The speaker was 
the mortgage clerk of oue of the principal 
aaviogs banks in this city, aut\ as he spoke 
he carefully wiped a large gold pen and 
put it away in a case. A reporter who 
had just entered the bank to have some 
back dividends entered in his book, over- 
heard the remark and smiled. " Oh, you 
needn't laugh," said the clerk, " for it is 

patiently perusing pretty promises. Polly's 
Puritanical parents propose punishing 
Polly publicly, provided Polly persistently 
prefers phonetic pabulum. Presently Polly 
procures phonograjihic pamphlets, point- 
ing Providenceward, presaging peculiar, 
perfect, perspicuous phonographic phases. 
Polly's pin money, plua prosperous parents' 
promised pittance, pays professor's per- 
quisites. Pecunioua parents, prophesying 
prospective poorhouse, protestingly permit 

lytcrot Ins fife ^Kj 

aub l^c njcntioii ojn}S nauxc^ 

mate a recorb ojliysi 
join, will) f()c cUizca5 


.&'>, pfs it to 6e- 



Hjouafttj.anl) to 
ojtiiis great 

the true business I am telling you. Gold 
pens have to rest now and then. Here 
I have, I suppose, two dozen gold 
peas. If I use one pen for several weeks 
or so I find it will not write to my satis- 
faction. Sometimes it is too soft and 
sometimes it is too hard, or the ink dots 
cot seem to flow well. For a long time I 
could not find out what the matter wa.«, 
but at last I went to a jeweler, who. after 
examining my pens, said, 'Give 'em a 
rest and they will be as good as new.'" 

He then explained that the conslaot use 
of a pen had tbt ~ 

[■ effect ( 

3 the metal 
1 used with 
great freiiuency. " Some sort of electro- 
magnetic action takes place in the metal, 
which has a tendency to bring into parallel 
lines ail the particles, and in that con 
dition a razor cannot be made to hold an 
edge, and a pen is equally as refractory. 
It the riizor is laid aside for a time the 
particles of metal gradually resume a more 
or Uss confused amugement and the razor 
takes on and retains a keen edge. It is 
the same way with a gold pen. Now, if 
when oue of my pens gets acting badly I 
lay it aside for a mouth or so it will be all 
right again. That's why I said tbat pen 

Polly's Fhonocrapblc- P«>nrliniil. 

Pretty Polly Pctrv ].. r^it, ntlv pr^poetd 
practicing phonii-' I ! I' '' - parents 

peremptorily proli i : i |. ir-uing 

phonographic p;iili- [ ■ j. | .^ aiming 
phonography pour [.uli^i. r.i^ivuring 
Polly proceeded pulvcri/.iii'^ pirents" per- 
suasions periodically, promptly purchasing 
phonographic preceptors' prospectuses. 
Poor Polly, perfectly puzzled, proceeds 

Polly's plan. Polly punctiliously practices 
practical phonography. Polly's pnins- 
taking perseverance pleases preceptor. 
Presently preceptor procures Polly pleas- 
ant, paying position. Polly provides par- 
ents' pie, pudding, pastry. Prudent Polly's 
pulchritude, punctuality, piquancy, pleases 
pompous proprietor. Propiietor petitions 
Polly's preference. Polly philosophically 
presents proprietor pretty pink palm. 
Proprietor politely pacifies Polly's parents' 
panes. Papa pardons Polly. Papa, pro- 
ceeding posthaste, procures pious parish 
pastor. Portly preacher pronounces i)ati- 
ent pair partners. Parson presents pair 
parchment. Proprietor pays pastor. Pair 
proceed, praising Providence, plus phono- 
graphy, princely pageant preceding. 
Practical phonography, patiently practicecj, 
proves palpably profitable. — Stenoijruiifii/. 

The Pl£tulc« of Ilie Afrlfaii ForcHt. 

During the very hungriest time spent 
by Stanley's expedition in going through 
the dense forest it happened that the dis- 
covery of & little child of the dwarf tribe 
proved truly providential. 

Upon approaching one of the settle- 
ments of these people, the natives, fearing 
that the Arabs were upon them, hastily re- 
treated to the depths of the jungle, leav- 
ing in the village one of the young chil- 
dren. He was an ungainly little creature, 
and from Salch's description had an enor- 
mously big head, protruding lower jaw, 
lean frame and ung*inly fat body. The 
Zanzibaris sat about in dejected groups, 
complaining of their present hard exist- 
ence and the sad contrast of to-day with 
their joyous life in their island home away 
in the Iiidiao Ocean. 

The little Teki-TrH (pigmy) althouirh 
not more than three years old, was busily 
searching for something in the dry leaves. 
The Zanzibaris were attracted by the 
child's activity. Presently the sparkle of 
his eyes and tbe increased earnestness of 
his hunt showed that he had been success- 
ful; and, indeed, he returned to the camp 
fire carrying a lot of pods like enormous 
beans. These he scraped to a fine powder, 
which he damped, rolled in some big 
leaves and then toasted in the ashes. 
When cooked to his satisfaction he opened 
the dainty package, and the whole camp 
became filled with the pleasant odor of 
this new dish. The men of the expedi- 
tion then closed around and, much to the 
young Tcki-Teki's disgust, helped them- 
selves to a tasting pinch. The Zanzibaris 
knew the tree quite well ; it was the m«K 
nemc. This new discovery brought a 
gleam of hope to the hearts of these hun- 
gry beings. The capture of the tiny 
woodsman was a godsend, and Sileh said 
that had this unhappy little creature but 
faintly understood their language he 
would have been overwhelmed with the 
heartfelt blessings showered on him. A 
few days afterward another tribe of these 
same small people was met, and the child 
was handed over to them to be returned 
to his parents. — E. J. Glave in Atu/i/sf St. 


She had a htUe sister Thi>ta. 

And she would often ban? and beta : 

And push, and pinch, ami hang, and pelt her, 

And many a heavy blow she dflla ; 

And say, " Now, darhng musnx chi.'^ 

Two Irish lads, of ruddy cheek. 
Were living just across the creek — 
Their uatnes, Umicron, and Omega, 
The on(> was small, the other bigger. 

So when tbe little hapless Thefa 
Su Alpha was about to beta, 
She do^vu upou the bank would zeta, 
And p/ii aloud aud shout like fun, 
" Run, ' Mike,' run, Omicron .'" 

I heanl tli 




■ Tho M.i 
The !..■ . 1 

".' ' !' 

vith tbe wi-eatb 

" TLe Kaily WnLings ul Ueorge Sttud ;" 
" The Transcendental Movement ; How 
It touches German Letteis Now" — 
All these I sadly list«ued Co. 

From wQ^htubs down to muffin rings ! 
She hail leu pnyesnll on pie, 
She tfnew the choicest way to fry 
An oyster, and how best to bake 
A good old-fBshioned johnny cake 

Next day the girl v 

; asked to share 
Tbe foi-tuues of a millionaire ; 
She now reads Brovming's wondrous books, 
And leaves the cooking to her cooks. 


^■IeW yORK (xUat) to tlTf 
-^^ i'imin?i)iiilf fiiVntls aubjamilq 
j' wbur Jpccascbiiicmlicr, riteii|miJii(fu( 
1 mi mMmc of LOYAL AND ^^: '■#•' 

HONEST HEARTS aiiD Hint a cofij o] _ "*' 

aiese exyvess'ioas ie sea\: ,;,. 
tol6,e TAniix. ^.di^l ■ ■ 

^'5 "[^ACKAKP. 55,-\!5P 

Wy^KEN H1GLE2; . Jah'^^e;alli!.''&fe * HtHRrAQlASSFORP. 


neniKM oi^meARMr 


"In aaotimm tuirii mr. 
forrgoinij aftiuii. tliis^ 
nifiuorinf is iiffKlioiintfb 
urtyulf!) to llif famili| ii\ 

That every time she chanced to i 

She lookeii as though she longed 
And nff H.'HirT^f th'' wnll she inn 

■? she Itrought her 

Whose iucome's'small. No girl bavelhey ; 
She scrubs and cooks the live long day. 
And sighs, while bending o'er the range, 
' B reflects upon the change — 

Pexmans Art Journal 

Adrnrrtising raUn, 30 cents per Jionparfil 
tne.9i,S0 per inch, each iwurtton. Disrounta 

application. No adrrrlis 

> fret snmpiea except to bojia fidt 
ayenla wAo are mbBCribert, to aid Hum in 
taking avbtcriptiont. 

Foreign mthscriptionu {to coun(n>« in l^a- 
tal Union) tl.-& per year. 

Send 10 cents for special 20-page number 
tcith full tiat of regular and tpecial pre- 
miums. PartitU premium Uat an next page. 

New York, Seplcmbrr, 18 

Slaking Fanrr faiiciT 12!> 

fenmnniihlo In tm- OuilQeii* College Course (Pl^ld- 

ntnt* lo Home LcBrnera 137 

Bead BvroroMgnliiK ...".'.. ."!".'!"!!!!!*! 127 

PoiulH rroin LWeTeBcbom 148-130 

lirrii-riil M i- . 1 1., ,, n i.,. I,...., ■■.■ K.-nd- 

Prorenitlon 134«S 

''''""1"'^ "li!'""'',' 

I.I r"rtrolio........*.13!«-3 

1 T. A.J.Dalrymple 

The (•-■ ■- 1,. 

- Hour 133 

Initial Letters. Ac. b 

HI. me .>oi •■ (Pen Drawing by 
yJ. K. Briiey, faE'joiJBKAL 

Editorial Comment. 

ir Eviplo !/<■>■». 


f<-ymfc\vi ^^'^"s*^ experience with 
^^ AmwJI lii~« employer has not 
I'.. 11 ofthemostpleas- 
irii kind wants to 
l>iio\v what protection 
I lie teacher has against 
the wiles of a dishonest employer. The 
quesMoD is one well worth considering. 
Perhaps the best protection is for the 
teacher to keep his eyes well opened and 
his wits well sharpened ; to take every 
means of being posted and keeping in 
touch with the profession. That will at 
least minimize the chance of his accepting 
employment with an institution of doubt- 
ful character. The chances ore that your 
swindler is old at the business, that lie 
has duped others before you, and people 
who have been po duped are not likely to 
keep a padlock on their lips. 

It would be a great thing for the busi- 
ness teaching profession if there weresome 
way of rooting out the rascals who sys- 
tematically prey upon their teachers and 
others who are inveigled into dealing with 
them. That such rascals are proportion- 
ately fewer now than ever before, we 
think can be readily established. Thepily 
is that they should be permitted to exist 
at all. Some of them are so small that 
they can hardly be seen without a micro- 
scope, and possibly in that fact resides 
their security. They are up to all sorts 
of dodges, from ordering goods by tele- 
graph, falsely stating that remittance has 
been mailed, to contracting obligations 
one day and calmly tending notice of in- 
aolvency the next. Wq see some pretty 
small specimens here in The JorBSAi, 
ottice. but it is even worse for the teacher 

whose time and labor and skill have Ix-en 
secured under false pretenses, causing him 
in turn to honestly contract obligations 
which it may be out of hia power lo dis- 
cbarge. Yet, what can hedo about it be- 
yond what we have suggested ? If he 
seems independent and insists upon a con- 
tract at the time of engaging he runs the 
risk of offending a respongibie school pro- 
piietor and losing his chance of employ- 
ment; while if the employer be dishonest 
the contract would be worthless nine 
times in ten. So in all the circumstances 
there seems no better plan than to be con- 
tinually on the alert and in touch with the 

It is a great mistake, though, to sup- 
pose that all the sinning is ou tbe side of 
the employer. Many a school proprietor 
gets " taken in " by employing incompe- 
tent or at least undesirable help, from mis- 
leading representations by the teacher or 
hig friends. And this suggests again the 
matter of contract. The teacher says; 
" Give me a contract that I may be sure of 
my place and not be liable to be turned 

father he became a professional |>euman 
while not Vet out of his teene, and forty 
years in the harness of active ser^'ice as 
author and teacher di(t not dim his ardor 
or lessen his respect for the calling of his 
choice. He was earnest, conscientious, 
progressive. He knew his business thor- 
oughly, and while always retaining a 
wholesome respect for the good work that 
had been done, was ever en the alert to 
keep the art abreast of the advanced 
thought and practice of to-day. 

AarerHMtng < 


The SUB.JECT of advertising is suggested 
as one that (he commercial schools might 
include to advantage in their curriculum. 
Why uot ? Every businc-«s man is inter- 
ested in understanding the best and cheap- 
est ways of letting people know why it 
would be to their advantage to deal with 
him. And the "commercial schools them- 
selves are peculiarly dependent on adver- 
tising for their patronage. Advertising, 
if not yet a precise science, is t^ecise 
enough as to certain underlying principles. 

The Journal's Script Portfolio. (Continued on^nact page.) 

adrift at a day's notlte." And the teacher 
is right, for business of this character ia 
undoubtedly best conducted in this way, 
but there are times when this involves pe- 
culiar hardships for theemployer. Usually 
he is a man of property and can be held to 
the fulfillment of his stipulations to the 
letter, while the teacher often has nothing 
hut his word to hold him to the perform- 
ance of his contract. It is easy to be seen, 
therefore, that the employee has no monop- 
oly of the riaks and annoyances which are 
liable to arise. In the face of all such 
difficulties there are the scores of schools 
and hundreds of teachers that pursue the 
even tenor of their way without friction 
year after year, and this proves that 'there 
is a right kind as well as a questionable 
kind on both sides of the line that sepa- 
rates employer from employee in the busi- 
ness college lield. 

The death of Heury C. Spencer of 
Washington removes from the penmanship 
profession one of its most prominent and 
accomplished members. It may be said of 
him that penmanship was a natural herit- 
age, t'nder the tutorage of hi» honored 

an acquaintance with which has brought 
fortunes to speciaUsts and those who em- 
ploy their services. With the specialists, 
the preparers and placers of advertise' 
ments, periodicals wholly devoted to the 
art have sprung up, and the next step in 
the natural progression is for business 
training schools to make a special investi- 
gation and study of the subject. 

A/loi.t nrromtng a fiojvMHlonal Penman. 

" WoiTi.D you ADVISE me to become a 
professional penman ?" No ! No more 
than we should advise you to become a 
professional physician, lawyer, preacher, 
or a tradesman. It depends on yourself— 
your fitness, your opportunitiea. These 
are questions which every man should 
work out for himself. We believe in a 
person doing that which he can best do, 
provided It be a legitimate business. It is 
a great mistake to suppose that anybody 
can win success as a professional penman. 
One must learn the business well and have 
a skillful hand and good judgment if he 
hopes to encounter successfully the skilled 
competition which he will be pretty sure 
to find, wherever his tent stakes may he 
driven. For ourselves, adviaing people to 

do this or that as a life work is a luxury 
that we rarely indulge. But this we ad- 
vise unhesitatingly : Ifjou do conclude 
to become a professional penman, put your 
heart into the work and prepare yourself 
thoroughly. A good start is half the 

Where, on ! where are Ihe "eels, lizards, 
crocodiles, whangdoodle*," etc., that were 
wont to bring tribulation to the soul of 
the Hon. G. Washington Brown of Jack- 
sonville. Peoria, Dtcatur. Giileaburg, 
Bloomington, III. i For ourselves we 
have to confess that an occasional reptile- 
yea, even a whangdoodle or two now and 
then— would alTord a welcome variety to 
the flocks and (locks of feathered things 
that tly from the facile pens of our " flour- 
ishers." Birds are pretty, birds are airv, 
birds are graceful ; but we have had one- 
sided birds, birds fanning themselves with 
their tail feather?, hump-backed birds, 
birds that wear their wings on the side of 
their heads, like Josh Billings' mule, and 
birds that have neither head toVear wings 
on. nor wings to wear on the head they 
haven't got; in fact, the changes have been 
rung so often that there would be iutiiiitc 
relief in a little variety. Admirers of grace- 
ful pen " flourishes " as we are, our appe- 
tite nevertheless gets a trifle cloyed with 
the same diet day after day, and we begin 
to have a lively fellow feeling for the 
crank who is eternally trying to devour a 
quail u day for a month. Time was when 
our penmen varied the menu with a bit of 
fish, a terrapin aitree or a saddle of ven- 
ison, with Diana herself to serve the looth-' 
some repast; but now it is birds, birds, 
birds. Then, oh ! for the touch of the 
vanished pterodactyl and the sound of the 
voice of the pterodoodle, stilled by the 
thunderous eloquence of the sage of Jack- 
sonville, Galesburg, Decatur, Blooming- 
ton jiliiH. Can It be that our penmen suf- 
fer from paucity of material '{ What of 
the waving fields, the lowing herds, the 
gamboling flocks (sheep, not fowl) 'i 
What of the luxurious hirsute adornments 
through which arc sifted the flute-like 
notes that fall from the lips of the Hon. 
E. Spencer, secretary of the Louisville 
Business College, president of theBusines.s 
Educators' Association and side partner of 
Editor G. W. Warr of the Bal.ina' Sh.-.-t ' 

Origin of Some Slang Words 
and Phrases. 
" Dun " is a word now whose meaning is 
known to every one who understands the 
English language. About the beginning 
of the century a constable in England 
named John Dun became celebrated as a 
tirst-class collector of bad accounts. When 
others would fail to collect a bad debt 
Dun would be sure to get it out of the 
debtor. It soon passed into current phrase 
that when a person owed money and did 
not pay when asked, he would have to be 
"dunned." Hence it soon became com- 
mon in such cases to say, " You will have 
to Dun So-and-So if you wish to collect 

Until the nomination of Franklin Pierce 
for the presidency, the word "outsider" 
was unknown. The Committee on Cre- 
dtDtials came in to make its report, and 
could not get into the hall because of the 
crowd of people who were not members of 
the convention. The chairman of the con- 
vention asked if the chairman was readv 
to report, and the chairman of the com- 
mittee answered, "Yes, Mr. Chairman, 
but the commiitte is unable to get inside 
on account of Ihe crowd and the pressure 
of the outsiders." The newspaper rep9rt- 
ers took up the word and used it. 

" You are a dait-y" is used by Dickens 
in Danid Copprrffh!, in the sense of call- 
ing a person a daisy to express admira- 
tion, and at the same lime to laugh at 
one's credulity. Steerforlh says to young 
C'opperficld: "David, my daisy, you are 
of the world. Let me call you 

m_v daisy, bs it is so refreshing to find one 
in these corrupt days so innocent and un- 
fiophisticalcd. My dear Copperfield, the 
daisies of Ibc field are not fresher than 

"Too thin " was given currency by 
Hon. Alexander Stephens of Georgia in 
the Unittd States Congress of 1870. Some 
members had made a reply to Mr. Stepheus, 
and the latter had his chair wheeled out 
iuto the aisle and said in that shrill, pip- 
ing voice which always commanded si- 
lence: '-Mr. Speaker, the gentleman's 
arguments are gratuitous assertions made 
up of whole cloth, aod cloth, sir. so 
gauzy aod thin that it will not hold water. 
It is entirely too thin. sir/'—Anirricnn 
Nu(€^ an,} Qurrus. 

Handwriting in the Witness Box. 

"The Law of Expert and Opinion Evi^ 
dcnce Reduced to Rules," ia a work much 
esteemed by lawyers. The author is John 
D. Lawson, well known as the author of 
" Words and Phrases," " Usages and Cus- 
toms." cto. Subjoined are a few extracts 
from thi.'i work relating to evidence from 

By nalure and habit individuals eon- 
tract a system of forming letters which give 
a character to their writing as distinct as 
that of the human face. And just as the 
evidence of witnesses that they saw the 
prisoner near the scene of a murder, at a 
certain time aod under certain circum- 
stances, has been considered sufficient 
proof of his identity to hang him. in spite 
of his denial that he was the man, so the 
testimony of witnesses: "We know the 
handwriting of John Smith, and this is 
his signature," may overcome the oath of 
John Smith himself: "This is not my 
writing; I swear I never signed such a 
paper in my life." Nor is this kind of 
evidence "secondary," within the rule 
that the best evidence must be produced 
or its absence satisfactorily accounted for 
before courts will listen to secondary evi- 
dence of the same matter. Whether writ- 
ing is proved by the person who made it 
or by one acquainted with his hand, the 
kind of proof is exactly the same; they 
are both primary, since the knowledge of 
both is acquired by the same means. 
Therefore the handwriting of a person 
may be proved in either of these modes, 
though he is himself within reach and 
might readily be produced, or is even actu- 
ally in court at the time. This rule in 
civil and in criminal cases is the same, and 
extends to all persons whether parties or 
not to the particular suit in which it is 

The genuineness of the signature of a 
lost instrument may be Bworn to by one 
who has examined it, and who testifies 
from his recollection of it. as compared 
with others which are shown to him; and 
where the party himself has destroyed 
certain writings, expert evidence is admis- 
sible to show that they were in the hand- 
writing of the person who wrote other 
signatures which are produced and proved 
to be his. 

Sometimes half a dozen engravers are 
engaged in rendering an artist's drawing 
of a single subject, which, when fini.'ihed, 
presents to the unpracticed eye one uniform 
style. Nevertheless, a practiced eye can 
discover where each individual engravers 
work leaves olT, and where that of every one 
of the rest begins. In handwriting, as in 
other arts and in literature, "the style is 
the man." Yet brave men may perpetrate 
a timid scrawl, generous and high-minded 
men may write a mean hand, and cowards 
produce a bold and flowing Script. Por 
son, the great Greek scholar, among the 
unlidiest of the students, wrote neatly and 
elegantly. Cromwell's writing, though 
large, is shaky. Shakespeare's signature 
is not particularly clear. Napoleon Bona- 
Itarte wrote illegibly, it is said purposely, 
to hide his bad spelling. The handwrit- 
ing of the torturous-minded Charles I is 

as i-lear and striking as that fjf Thoma'. 
Carlisle is crabbed and indistinct. On the 
other hand, Queen Elizabeth's writing is 
magnificent. Edgar Allen Poe wrote 
beautifully, and with scarcely an erasure; 
whereas, the manuscripts of Charles Dick- 
ens, to be seen in the Forster collection at 
South Kensington, are rugged and Jul 1 of 
alterations and emenditions. Many men 
write large or small, in characters boldly 
or weakly formed, according to their 
hqmor of the moment. Again, hand- 
writing depends for its style on the school 
in which it is taught, and the purpose to 
which it is applied, Tlie manuscript of 
IJyron, of Thomas Campbell, and of 
Thackeray, may be called the literary 
hand. It is uniform in color, small and 
fairly legible, but without a superabund- 
ant curve or flourish. The great mass of 
" copy " which posses through the hands 
of a modern printer is more or less 
of the same character, A commercial 
hand, as it is called, is something quite 

do would be to say 'Sit down and write, 
that I may judge whether your hand- 
writing is that of the man you assert your- 
self to be.' If I had writing of the man 
with whom identity was claimed I should 
proceed at once to compare with it the 
handwriting of the party claiming it. For 
that reason I shall ask jou carefully to 
look at and consider the handwritiugof the 
defendant, aod to compare it with that of 
the undoubted Roger Tichborne and with 
that of Arthur Orton." 

(Many other eminent opinions in this 
line are quoted, among them the follow- 

"Men are distinguished by their hand- 
writing, as well as by their faces; for it is 
seldom that the shape of their letters 
agree, any more than the shape of their 
bodies. Therefore, the likeness induces 
the presumption that they are the same." 
—Bulfer's A'ls/ Printi. 

"The general rule which admits of 
proof of handwriting of a party is founded 


Mr. Stutsmari's Address is Los Angeles, Cal. 

different. Given an envelope addressed 
by a city clerk and one from (he band of 
a univeisity piofessor, and it is well-nigh 
certain that the former will be more dis- 
tinguished for elegance and clearness than 
the latter. Again, the writing of the rus- 
tic and uncultured class is so much alike 
as to defy differentiation. In determining 
the question of authorship of a writing, 
the resemblance of characters is by no 
means the only test. The use of capitals, 
abbreviations, punctuation, mode of di- 
vision into paragraphs, making erasures and 
interlineations, idiomatic expressiocs, or- 
thography, underscoring, style of compo- 
sition and the like, are all elements upon 
which to form the judgment. 

Lord Chief Justice Cockburn, in his 
charge in the celebrated Sir Roger Tich- 
borne Claimant trial in London, some 
years since, said : "Manifold as are the 
points of diflirence in the infinite variety 
of nature in which one man differs from 
another, there is nothing in which men 
diSer more than in handwriting ; and 
when a man comes forward and says : 
' You believe that such a person is dead 
and gone ; he ia not, I am the man,' if I 
knew the handwriting of the man sup- 
posed to be dead, the first thing I would [ 

on the reason that in every person's man- 
ner of handwriting there is a peculiar 
prevailing character which distinguishes 
it from the handwriting of every other 
person."— Wrajy? vn. linwer, 17 Ala. 

"The handwriting of every man has 
something distinct and peculiar from that 
of every other man, and is easily known by 
those who have been accustomed to see it." 
—Peal-e's Evidence. 

"Hours and hours and hours have I 
spent in endeavors, altogether fruitless, to 
trace the writer of the ietter that I send, 
by a minute examination of the charac- 
ters, and never did it strike me until this 
moment that your father wrote it. In the 
style I discover him— in the scoring of the 
emphatical words, his never-failing prac- 
tice, in the formation of many of the let- 
ters, and in the adieu at the bottom— so 
plainly that I could hardly be more con- 
vinced had I seen him write it."— CWw- 
per's Worh (Letters). 

Bad luck is simply a man with his hands 
in his pockets and a pipe in his mouth, 
looking on to see how it will come out. 
G-ood luck IS a man of pluck to meet diffi- 
culties, his sleeves roiled up, working to 
make it come out right.— £";. 


Every 9Ut)5crlhcr for The Jodrnal Bt i 
price of one dollar is entlltod to choice of 1 
followinir valuable premiiiuis free : 

Works of Instruction In Penmanship. 

AmeK* Guide to Scll-littiirucllon 
Prartl<-«l nud Arllaclr P«tininnMhlp 

lul hook Is whnt ii<- m\n\f iinpti 



ivable sUiJS projtrcsslv 
ay the Slips, and the 

a posed f 
and cor 

u«.i envelope." This work a'lso"has"hiura verv 
tsn ^ "idependently of its use as premium 
Instead of either of these works, the eub- 
soriber may have choice of ft oumber of splendid 
pen aeaigus. handsomely reproduced by Ittboir- 
raphy and suitable for framing. They are 
mailed securely packed tn a tube. This h the 

riie ■'or<l/> Prayer (size 19 x 24 inches); 
'-ilipd Eaele (34 X 32); PloiirUh 

Stas(24 x'SsiTrenteDiiTaf PI 
.... Irani IHe 


Garfield ITlemorlal (19 x 24); 

Lincoln Eiiloey (^ x 30) ■ IHarrin*re Cer 

llflcate as X 2.'); Family Accord (18 x ffi) 

Special Premiums for Clubs. 

To stimulate those who Interest themselves i 
gettmir subscriptions for The Journal, w 
offer a numoer of valuable spct-inl nr nrc 
them for their 

Dader this 
will aiNo I 

and trouble. 

niltled I 

lumerat^d i 

Am^^BesVpunst'ortlU'iicwsube^'' "°^ ' 
Ames* Compendium of Practical j 
ArtUilc Ponman»lilp. 

Whea you find Qprofessioniil pcu worker 

copy of Ame-' ''ompendium" 'u,~ l'',!'.,.'\'n 
edged standard of the cnyrrus.-.!] , |.. r, ,. 1 1,' , 


'"' " '■; " -■i>t(Ted mail. 
- ' "' '" '•'"■ ' ^"nrCompeiiuiuuj. 

niirii i>i riiiiUQship is taught. 
iiy tl:ii liLT iJi penmanship, t 

(Sit). OP for ! 

nship is t«ufi 

Amea' Book of FlourlabeB. 

latest and quickest selling penman- 
tipn. It contains 125 spetiimf ■ 
" -I fh^h*^* ^ 'cading- peijmen. 
..10; heavy manilla bind 

subs, and 30 cents ex era" for"" 
for two nev 
sub. and 31 
— ^..oni. 7" 

, -'or one'^new" 
and 75 cents. 
Cooper** Lealber Stocklne Talea 


xtra (Sl.lO). 
above only m 
■h, large type. 

ship publicntipn. It co-nTnTnTi25 spetimenTby 

\Sl. Will send 
subs-: for four 

subs ?Y£!«j"c«ntsJ £of twd^n_^w°suteT """ 
Vand 81 25°r 
! new subs.; 
extra ; for one new sub. and 60 c 

this famous e 

r for 1 

/. W. RatrllfFr, Br; 
Wehnii'i I 


s (J1.35). or for 1 

grand bmi. 

W, H. B,l':. •-„,'' 

This is 

t successful books of 

F been sold 

1 good one. Fifty 
- from Expe ■ 
im those who hH 

[)ok is eKf»-c.iall 


book is Mfieciallu 
rid. This 

',.!'," ■ " :7 ';;i' ';, 

;uid ijjticouDt 

ind written up 
i. ks. i-euroduced 
In cofore. also 

' ■■ .I-M^, ...[..HJ 


-■! . I.'. s-iUgS 

1 i. ' Tsay 9C 
"Id Prop 

myself .-B. E 
Northern Mich. 

" - .iM'ctalprf 

mlumg (Ufcrtbed 




eompeteul teachern 
of penmausbip nnA 

Rooilonothftt w.'hi 
it. tmt tUo iii>[i)i( 

Mny 1 timu lu thu n hole of last year, or in any 
wo pivvioiis ».(;jisoiifi. Many o( these trans- 
iclions hnvi- nlrpady beou noted in The 
lorRNAi-anilft ot olhers are given 
H'low. A lirisk (Itmaiid for teachers means 
iiitre student* and more money for the schools 
lud more practical education among the people. 
— A. W- Diikiu, tin- fam.m- penman, and 
t. H, Sullivin, !■ li. n...l,.i,.l Iiijtilx -11^- 

a M'vcre relU-itinii on their busiuess sagacity. 

— I> B. WilliHins hnsgot hisnewschool.the 
Milwuuki-i- Hiis. Uiii., under way and thing* 
tiro running \ ery eniootlily. 

- Our giftt'd yovmg friend F. <J. Woodwoith 

, Ciil. 

Unl. of Onunerce, i 

the Sliaiuokin. Pa.. Bus. Cull. 

— S. M, Swoet, iHte of BaWess Bus. Coll.. 
Dnhuqne, 1.. 

'apolis. Be goes from 

iftlugue of Dr. Carpenter's B. and 
Louis, has an oruBmeutal cover 
' a advantage the engrot^ing skill 

k uf Duluth, Minn. The 

All three 
lirnatl education and commercial 
<»r I'Xpwieno*, whose services before 

I>enuiAnsbip and fdiCor of the Ink ISittfe and 
other peumansliip publications, now occupies 

•s embossed In gre«D ond gold ou a salmon 

Sle/hngw.irih Inn, L«kewoad, N. Y., one 
of the best Mp|wmted of immmer hoteht at 
one of tbe most cb&nning resorts. L. L. Gate- 

wood, the new penman of the college, has 
many accomplish men ts in this line. 

— Priu. W. C. Buckman of the Alamo Citv 
Bus. Coll., San Antonio. Texas, is to be con- 

t promim 
tfie continent, A. D. Skeels. 

— C. N. Faulk, late of the Holmes Bus. Coll., 
Portland, Ore., has become principal of the 
Bu-i. Dept. of the Portland Uni. 

— The ftoui'ished cut which appeared under 
the heading " The Penman's Leisure Hour " on 
page IIM, August Journal, should have been 
cr«lit<'d to Vt . C. Harvey of Armstrong's Bus. 
Coll., Portland. We regret the oversight, 

— T. N. Williams of Pittsburgh bas joined 
the faculty of Caton's Bus. Coll., Cleveland. 

— E. L. Miller has been doing good work as 
penmanship instructor at the Warren Co. 

the term now opening. Mr. Sulli .._ 
teaches in the Metnodist College. Besides be- 
ial skill, he is also a short- 

director of the ChUds' 

Muss., now haik from New Haven, Conn,, 

linvin- l...u;:lit out the Cargill Bus. Coll. of 

:■ ■[ III lni~, rollege work at Youngstow 
III. h(i> [nri-|ited a position as head of tl 
n I dfpt. or Mt. Union College. 
-The Iowa Bus, Coll., Des Moines, A. i 

inged the balk of 

7 occupy 


to claim among its own than '' Sockless ^erry 

— The fnrtv-third anuivei-sary and graduate 
ing exercises of the Speiicerian Bus. Coll., 
Cleveland, are set fur September 10. About 
1511 ginduotes will receive diplopiius. 

—J. E. BarufS and C. W. Varnum, princi- 
pals of the Denver Bus. Coll., report a gratify- 

had a prosperous school at Sherman, Texas. 
Ue appears to be a pushing man. 

— An exceptionally neat and business like 
cutalnf^iu' bus the uanie of Capital City Com. 

Coll , 1 1' - "^[.' ri ]['i cover. It goes be- 

— The Southern 3cat/.. 
Prof. F]-ank Goodman. 
Bus. Coll., Nashville, al^ 

the Southern delegatio 
Teachers' Convention. 

the ^National 

— A, M. Wright and Martin Ross, under the 
firm name of Wright & Ross, are doing a good 
pemoonsbip business at McGary, lud. 

— H. Champlin has Iwen elected superin- 
tendent of writing and drawing in the public 
schools of Nashville, Tenn. During the sum- 

mer Mr. Champliu was engaged in teaching 
penmaDsbip at Glen's Fblls, N. Y. 

— Robt A. Kemp has i*csumed his hook- 
keeping school at Frederick, Md. 

— C, A. Steinmanu, Prus. of tbc Dixon, 111,, 
Bus. Uni., basopened a new gchool at Tren'on, 
III. T. T. Wtlsou, a good penuiua and teacher. 

is to be congratulated. 

— Spalding's Com. ColL, Kansas City, Mo., 
recently removed to new and mure commodi- 
ous quarters, having outgrown the home it had 
occupied for years. 

—A. J. Williard's connection with the V'o. 
Bus. Coll., Bedford City, Va., has been 
a pupil nuci nut .-i l.-aih.-r. as slaN-d i 

Rambo & Doui^l; 


— Tilr 

the Iml 

p'rin, \V. n1 
Ferris w . j, . i i i|ii.-iit of a handsome 

gift friiiii I'liiin III. 1 1 I nils aud pupils. Mr. 
Ferris read om? of the best papers neard at the 
late B. K, A. meeting. 

— J. J. Swengel, late of Shenandoah, Iowa, 
has become connected with the Northwestern 
Coll. of Com.. Gnind Korks N,. \>nU. 

— F. L. Elletti.i i;..H i,,k. 1,. ^ , jiK-stothe 
N. W. Coll. of ( \. . w u. 

— Ahandsonn' i ; 'urnal's 

the N. I. Normal SlL'-jI, Lu.vuh, ill., uu August 

— W. J.Dbwneyof Akron, N. Y., has joined 
the faculty of the Westbrook ColL, Ulean,N.Y. 

— A well aiTiini^cd ami ciin-fully printed 

: liapids. Ml 

Collet ►■ 

irl, Colo., 
1 W. E, 

— O. M. Fisli. r _ I M. .. : ,1 ur.,Ill.,to 

teach at the Kin|iii.- Mn- -■. i mII. ■;;,■. WuIIa 

Walla, Wash. 

— C. E. Webber has purchased from H. B. 
Worcester an interest lu the G-ate City Bus. 

r._.. o_- T-_^ r,., w.. .»_,.,.__ ,_ ^^^ 

F. H. Bliss lii.^ - i 

J. Elliott. \aU.- Ml s' 
Stratford, Ont , i i 
lege, Fort Wayn- , I i i i 
ble penman , pr< i;; i • . ^ i 1 1 
popular man. At hi-^Hnv > 
Mr. Bliss retains J. M. H.- 
of salary as a reward for ■ 
iug the past year. F. I. 
years a leading teacher iil 

Ii. .1 . .\notber elaborate 
.iU.wa Liuality is from S. D. 
..,11s, Mass. The work of this 
nas shown very much improv©- 
tbe first specuuens v 

I. \< U <■ 11.-.^. ^ ^nid R. W. 
ipah. Hanuiinrs Bus. Coll.. 
issues a catalogue that has n 

penman (and we don't d"ubt that be will) is 
another way of wishing for bim and his bride 
prosperity and happiness, 
— Om talent^fd yimiig friend. C. E. Chase, 

gratulatinus, coupled with the best of wishes. 

mental end pieces that are good euouch to 
print in The Jodbnal, and we shall take an 
early opportunity to do so. Clever script 
specimens are from the same source. 

— We have a lot of visiting cards in both 
off-hand and engraved style from P. E. Holley, 
Waterbury. Conn. The engraved rtyle cards 
especially show a high degree of skill, and we 
have rarely seen anything better in that line. 
Other well-written cards come from J. P. Mc- 
Donald, the clever penman of Chaffee's In«ti- 
tute, Oswego", N. Y. : L. B. SuUivan. Arka- 
delphta, Ark.; A. McDanlel. Norman, Ok., Ty. 
business card, the original of 
■_ Ignatius 
testifies to that 
ii'ces in that libe. 
i~e, MempfaiH, Teuu., 

inilial which i 


sends dmit 
cently a|i|i> 

—III tbi ; '. ! ;l I I i Im *\.- haveanaltrat't- 
ive desi-ii ^^ \ !■: Mn-Tlumn, Qnincy, 111., 
aud another l>v I'. H. Hibsou, Littleton, N. C. 
Photograph of an ingenioiisdesignof this char- 
acter, the subject being an Indian chief, cornea 
from C. L. Brill of the B, & S. Bus. CoU., 
Malvern, Iowa. 

piiH' no 



u question that the flr>t two eru- 
ditions have been effeituallr met. The pupil 
alone can solve theth«rd, but we think wo can 
Insure a favorable verdict in advance. 
The copies are graded and numbered. Tb^j- 

e divided into groups in the 

and these groups •ubdivided into leisons. 

With each lesson thL- autl)oi> -tal*^ llnf main 
object to be attaiovl ^nii i i i- .iv-^' ex- 
plicit directions as ti' II. I I (II I. i-iif at- 

tainingit. Then, n- ii i _ hlHcul- 

tiesthat would nuli.i ;. . . , If the 

student, every kf^^"" <■ -n\'iA' i ii il with 

"hints and cautious," whicli it seems to us 
will be particularly helpful to the learner. 

Business Letteb-Wkitikq.— Mr. D. L 
Musselinau, proprietor and principal of the 
t}«ni City Bus. Coll.. Quincy, lU., has just 
added to his Ibt of commercial text-books a re- 
vised edition of his " Business Letter-Writing." 
Kvcn a casual glance at the work indicates 

interest. Each copy i- r 

jip, thus the pupil learns fi-om cnch 
something besides writing; constant 
ematic training in the writing of 


umbci-K ; tracing co 
umber. The publisl 

3 numbers ; mov&- 
iid business forms, 1 
are Silver, burdett 
Bostcn, with branch 

houses ill New York, I'hiidclphia "and Chicago. 
Office Work ix Shorthand.— This is the 
title of the latest addition to the exten&ive 
literature of the Isaac Pitman system. It is 
designed to familiarizo students with business 
forms which they are likely to encounter in 
office work ovitside of the regular corres- 

Kondence dictation— the drift of these days 
emg to utilize the office stenographer for 
wider purposes than as a mere writi * " " 
Price, 35 cents in paper ; .W rents i 

—The Seplemher 

Tof letters, 


■ the four 


-Tho .'^ept^rill.rr -(■ \..h. 

Not tlH' il-ast of 'r'lrpv, . ■h' , ■' -,'>',', , ,1 
wahn Folklore," by l |jii=. 1'. 1, 
begin to call over tlie lull 
find a happv youngster you i 
place a copy of St. Nirhola.t. 


canipliell, 218 La 

splendidly printed. To reiiii 
with the progress of the ^n 
vise ail of our readers to s^i u 
co^tsoulv SSciuts, and is nlm 
private advance view of the t 

id upon bis at.t..uHuii m ulUer depart- 
1 of his bubiness, pai-ticularly that of en- 
iig, makes it impossible for him to keep 
' supplies business. 

son a Ciroai Poel ? 

Is he a great poet i Your reply to that 

will depend on whether jou think the 

nineteenth century is a great century. For 

there can be no doubt that he represents 

the century better than any other man. 

The thouf^hta, the feelings, the desires, 

the coutlicta, the aspirations of our age are 

mirrored in his verse. And if 

you say that this alone prevents 

hiai from being great, because 

greatness must be solitary and 

inilependent, I answer. No; (or 

the great poet does not anlici- 

the conceptions of his 

he only, anticipates their 


He says what i 

The Above Cuts Wn-e Engravrd by The Jouhnal from Copy Executed by C. 
Oregon. The First One ix Done by the Half-roue Process. Much Work by this 
Recently Found its Way itito The Joubnal on Account of its Mej'its. 

ing in freehand writing, and inducing « 

the heart of the people, and says 
it so beautifully, so lucidly, so 
strongly, that he becomes their 
voice. Now if this age of ours, 
with its renaissance of art and its 
catholic admiration of the beau- 
tiful in all forms, classical and 
romantic; with its loveof science 
,^ and its joy in mastering the 

^ secrets of nature; with its deep 

passion of humanity protesting 
against social wrongs and dreaming of 
social regeneration; with its introspectire 
spirit searching the springs of character 
and action; with its profound interest in 
the problems of the unseen andit^ reaction 
from the theology of the head to the 
religion of the heart — if this age of ours is 
a great age, then TtnuysoQ is a great poet, 
for he is tlie clearest, sweetest, strongest 
of the century. — Ittv. I)r. Van Di/ke 

D. T. Ames. ¥.sq.— Dear Sir : The diplomas 
we ordered from you arrived to-day oy ex- 
press. Allow me to soy that the work ia 
highly suii8factoi-j[ lo us in every way. I con- 

of that ufiked by other Grms for work inferior 
to yours. Hereafter wi- shall he glad lo give 
you alloui- orders for work of this kind. 

Human Nature. 

Sydney Smith ooliccd hin serraDts to 
have a dUlik« to cheap tfaiDgs. aod 
thought more soap was tiKcd in his house 
and of a morv expea^ive kind than woa ne- 
cessary. He therefore bought six pounds at 
two prices, but before giving them to the 
servant he changed the papers, so that the 
cheap one was in the paper which had con- 
tained the dearer kind, and bad its price 
marked thereon. 

"Well, Betty," he said, soon after, 
" which soap do you And washes best?" 

" Oh, please sir, the dearest, in the bhie 
paper. It makes a lather as well again as 
the other." 

" Well, Betty, you shall always have it 

"And so," he says, " the uDSUspecting 
Betty saved me some pounds a year and 
washed the clothes better." — Amcrimn 

"No Flies" on This School! 

Wc have recciv(d a college catalogue 
for the year 1891. It is "rich." We 
give sample sentences: 

" If you don't want to hreak your head 
getting old rules and false dcliDitions by 

heiirt, come to ■ college. If you 

want to catch on to grammor and arithme- 
tic in double f/iiicl; not having to get a 
single definition or rule in either branch, 
come to college. . . . I( teach- 
ers want to know-how and where all the 
authors of grammars, arithmelice, alge- 
bras, etc., are wrong and moke JacJ:* of 
f/iemiflreg, instead of nweUing along after 
the books, let them come to col- 
lege and learn to leace off their old graiiitj/ 
methods and groiy ways. I defy one and 
all grave, oirl-ei/ed pro/eiimr* and parpen ue 
Ph.D.'x, to show u single good reason for 
the old stereotyped method of a thousand 
years ago. .Tu«t to think that young men 
can get a thorough education icithottt 
criickimj their brains over old rules, . . . 
all this for 17 cents per meal, with teach- 
ing, washing, bed, beddiug, lights and 
fuel thrown in. . . . ' Get on your 
bustle and get up and hustle ' is inscribed 

upon the college baooer. Why do 

you attend a palace-car affair whose moss- 
backed, owl eyed professors who enjoy the 
otivm cum digmtate of life for tlie simple 
reason that they get there nil the same, 
when you might just as well come where 
success depends upon the ' get up and 
get' principle. Hair oil, etc., will be pur- 
chased for the students when money is de- 
posited for that purpose. Come to 


This is a lona ^fidt college in the United 
States of America, and not in one of the 
Western States either. It is rfCt a bur- 
lesque catalogue, hut one prepared in all 
seriousness. It presents a list of eleven 
professors in all the departments. — JV. E. 
Journal of Education. 

\ a»iii p<'i> <'oiiof-iioii. 

The late General Albert Pike of Wash- 
ington, was perhaps better versed in the 
mysteries of ancient Freemasonry thiin any 
other person in the world. His transla- 
tions from the vcdas filled seventeen vol- 
umes of a thousand pages each, all care- 
fully written in a beautiful hand. General 
Pike used none but ^uill pens in this 
writing, and carefully preserved each one, 
the number probably reaching 10,000. 

Tne bfst plan in forwarding Utters to ad. 
vfrtisfrs aho use tioni de plnme* ia to enclose 
such replies in araled envelope and in turn 
enclose this envelope in another addressed 
to The Journal. Cataloffues, %ieu:spapers. 
photos, etc., witt not be fou-at ded unless post- 
age for same is sent, tt'hen writing for 
infomtalion send stamp. 



G »,'„",' 

□Ehip and s 
position. Full^ 



I, t)ut I hnve taimht with 
:va\l other subjects tlist 

(inod tlucnt tit'nuan, and can refer by per- 
mleelon to leadlnir men id tbc commercial teacta- 
Inir proffdsloii. Oprn to eniragenicnt at mrxler- 
ute>uilMry where there Isoomcihinj ■ -^ • 
good mnn. "COUNTING-ROOM, 

^ihfnjii ahead fori 


'KD.— An experienced teacher of 
kbeepltiK HDd notiittl business. 
I miin RDd one edueati>d in 
rnni-hes preferred. Must be a flrst- 

i growing school 

8 hud thorough 

known . .ii, _■ - ..i t in- . mmtiy ; nlso gmduati 
of leuillii^- ijiiMiii^^ I'litiL-uc tmd has had four 

Jears' cxiK-TicTiic us luiukkeeper with mercnn- 
lle firm and Is capable or good work at 
teacbing thoee branches Testimonials with 
penmanship (.pwimeris, etc., lo prospective 
employers. "COHKECT." care Penman's Aht 

EXPERIIiNniin TKAOHRH of com- 
mercial branches is open for cngagemeDt, 
Testimonials from lute employer us to choi-ac- 
ter and ability Chauffes to get a wider hori- 


Earnest, practical. 

INTED by teacher of 
ithmetic. grammar and 
dufuted at literary college 
IS. coll. (Dine months), and 
' experience at teaching, 
not afraid of work. 



ANTED. — An all-round commercial 
>r for principal of business college. 
.0. 1 penman and a man of experi- 
ence, isena photo or tmtype with application. 
F. H. BLISS. Saginaw. Mich. 


ANTED.-A nrat-class 1 

_ shorthand. Mustliavi 

perience In this system. Othei-s need r 
Address "A. A. T.," care Penman's Ai 

ehool. Besides the geneml oT«ncbcs teaches 
shorthand (New Knpfd) and typcwiiUng. and 
business pcnmansbip if necemary. Thorough 
German M-holar, educated abroad. Four years' 

healthy ' CHARACTER." 



FOB SAI-E.-A one. 
more of a chain of h 


IS Mill. Willi 


An extensive series of de^iiilly wriltcii copifJt, fresh from the i>en. i>n heuvy. iiuruletl paper, 
comiKindium size, there heing fifteen sheets packed in a sutjstantiul eusc ami sent for a fiO cent 


Headquarters for Business Training Supplies. 

We publish the following text books and supplies for Business Training in High School, 

Academy and ( 

lercial Sci 

X'pared by Prof, ». H. Good- 

year, business educator of eighteen years' expenence. 


teacriptive circular* prices and samples, stating 

nth which they art 

1 jiud their 

i S. H. GOODYEAR, Secretary. 

GOODYEAR PUBLISHING CO., Cedar Rapids, lowa.^.tt 


/of Louisville. Ky., which soen 
3n of Teachers and educators a 
American Journal of Education, 

II over the countrj 
and its splendid ; 

1 1 was The Educational Coun 
cally called the especial alien 
the good record made by thi 
immediate practical results. 

The Courant. in speaking of the direct money value lo all teachers of the circulation 
of this journal among the people, said : 

"A year or two ago the Editor of the American Journal of Education, St. Louis, 
urged that a liberal distribution of that paper among the teachers, school officers and 
tax-payers would re-imburse tach teacher four fold its cost in one year. The teach- 
ers caught the idea, and wisely and zealously aided until one hundred and fifty thousand 
copies were put into circulation. At the close of the year the Report of the Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction for Missouri sho'.vcd an avoage tncttase of ttaehers' wages 
at%\i) 62 Of course, ii was not claimed that all this was due to ihs Journal, but that 
it was an active and prompt factor in securing the desired result no intelligent 
person will deny." 

Address J. B. Merwin. Managing Editor, 1 120 Pine St.. Si Louis, Mo., for sub- 
scription or sample copies. Price. $1.50 per year. 


If you want the '^rj/ School Desks, the *«/•' Aids to School Discipline." Slated Paper 
or any other style of Black Boards, or any other -Tools to Work With " in the school- 
room, such as .Maps. Globes Charts or Black Boards, the best thing to do is to write 
the J. B Merwin School Supply Co , St. Louis, Mo , for Sferial tniroduclory Piices on 
these articles. This firm furnishes the best goods at the lowest I'rices. and will take 
pleasure in answerinc all inquiries. Address the 




Mr. E. W. Bloser bis purchased a one- 
huir iaterett iu the Zaoeriaij Art Collegv of 
Columbus, O. 

This school has uow three of the teadiug 
peumen of the United States as it$ faculty and 
is pre-eutiDPDtly at the head as a training 
school for teachers of (lennianship and art. 

A new catalogue coulaioing portraits, Mgna- 
tures and specimens of the faculty and gradu- 
ating designs from studentii. with other master- 
pieces of pen art, will be mailed for Ave red 

It contains 18 full page cuts 0% x 10 inches) 
of Writing, FlouriKhing, I.«ttering, Drawing 
aud Portraiture. 

It is out of the ordiuary line of catalogues, 
and is worth at least (1.00 to all who are in- 
terested in the latest in the profes.sion. 


bodying everything tha 

pletc work, in a condensed forr 
Admiiably arranged for cla 
Commercial Colleges, Acade 
Schools and for private learn 
copies, 20c. I am prepared I 
reasonable ktitt; \c m hur.K ; 

J. M. MEHAN, Des Moines, Iowa. 


A series of carefull;' graded copies 
accompanied by an 


Desijifned for Class use and for 
Home Practice. 

Abundant movement exercises 
are given to develop a graceful and 
rapid style of writing. They are 
not grouped upon one slip, but 
appear in connection with each 
copy, and arc to be practised pre- 
liminary to it. 

The subject of penmanship is 
presented in an original, attractive 
and thoroughly practical manner, 
differing radically from anything 
before published- 

The complete work will be 
mailed, postpaid, upon receipt of 
One Dollar. 



The Ohio Educational Monthly 



one of WMion's Bes"- 


Modern Methods, Sensible Theories, Court- 
eous Treatment, Tuition 


Kesolutioiis E^gro^se'J. Dii>lomas bcsigiiert' 
Script Preimred, Signatures Engraved. Cards 
Finely IlliiMrnteil ('RtnloKUi> I'oi- 5 Itcd 




147 Throop St., CHICAGO. ILL. 

UK A BOOItriliiEPEPf? 

ThPii »>iibitt-rlbp for 


50c, per year. Sample copy 4c. Address, 

THE ACCOUNTANT, Des Moines, Iowa. 



Sample copies 50 cents, ^end lor circular. 

Aiidrm., C. V. CARHART, 

42B Clinton Ave., Albany, N. Y. 




Penmanship, Book-ieeplng and Actual Bnsiness 

Practice, or Short-liand and Type-writing, 


Opens Sept. 1st. 1891. 

Last Page of the Sherman Memorial Album.— (See Page 131.) 

OtrtcHfixi'i^ c5urni?tt, 

3li)n.'51Tnfilorr &wnce, 

' Cni-ijnW.e^lIooiv. 

diedevick <? e*rftiu 

\ eArtlpfrcK.'^^nni^aitri'. 
I ,, ^"i 

i '3)rShomai el 3imme)>, 


^ ;'_ (?ni>l.cKi'ttrc| A..Sla»/m-^. 

J S.S.9acUaril. , 

e)ofTi!;<5l(:,.S«itpnu, ^' ^ 

c5(otuf r iff. 
(£(javlr6 aS?frf,' 

AA/D ryp£ i^/?/r//\/G. 


ffo copy c/iff/?s 

Address M KCE H EN DLPSON, Oberlin, Ohio. 

aln nR a ho outth Bl -^INEHii TKAININO, equal In ever 

Address McKEE & HENDERSON, Oberlin, Ohio. 

Thp Special Penmanship Department 

{»rE»«e4IONAL PKN>1II 

Price List of 

Penmen's and Artists' Supplies 

For Sale by THE PENWftrs ART JOURNAL. 

iK-icnrbyrcgl/le^dl.mTl."'"' *' ""''^ "" "" " 

AllM^pre»Ban<l C.o.D. chonn-» must bo paid by the 
puiT- aser. BOOKS. ETC. 

/ ties' CompeDdlana of PraoUcal and Oma- 

' mental Peumansbtp $5 00 

Xmes' Bnok of Alphabets 160 

Ames' Guide to I'ractical and Artistic Pen- 
manship, In piper 50c.: In cloth 7B 

Ames' Copy Slips for Helf-Teochera . . . , 50 

Wil llama' and Packard's Genu 5 00 

Standard Practical PeDtnanshlp, by the Spen- 

cei Brothers 100 

New Speiicerian Cumpendlain, complete io 8 

partH. per part... . 00 

Bound ooun>leto 7 00 

Kibbe's AlponticM, Bve slips. 25o.; complete 

st^t of :.T slips 100 

Old EnpUsh Alphabet, peralip, 5f ; per doi.. 80 

nprtnan TPKt Alphabet 80 

Grant Memorial 32x28 luohea SO 

F'amily Record 18x23 " BO 

Marriage Certificate lax^ " GO 

•■ '• iIXl4 ■' 60 

Garfield Memorial 19x31 " 60 

Lord's Prayer 19x84 " 60 

Bounding Stag, 24x32 " GO 

Flourished Eagle 24x32 " 80 

Centennial Picture of Procress... 22x25 " 60 

" *' " ...28X'J0 " 1 00 

Eulogy of I-lncoln and Grant., 22xiM " BO 


Umameutal and Flourished Cards, 12deaiKni. 

new. original and artistic, per pack of 60, 80 
lOObymatl ^gg 

1000 " Kw[by express ..^ ■-•■-- 4 00 

Bristol Board.a-8he8t thick. 22x28, per sheet. 60 

22x28 per sheet, by express. . . 80 

French B.B.. 24x34. " " ■■■ '| 

HoUnmwinEPiii.-'i ■ ■ ■'- and 

Black Card-board, .'." , i"' i- ... M 

Black Cards, per 100 86 

Black Cards, per 1000, by express 2 00 

per sheet, quire 

WTiatman's by mall, byex, 

Drawing paper, hot-press, lfiT20,.t .15 $ 1 SO 

^- '• 17x22.. .20 2 00 

19x24.. .20 a 20 

Elx30.. .25 8 75 

II 2«x40.. tV) 7 00 

Best quality Tracing Paper, yard wide. . . . - . 60 

Wnidson't Newton'sSup'rBup Indi&lnkStick 100 

Prepared India Tnli, per bottle 60 

Ink rravs or Slabs, with cover, \%>AM 78 

Whire Ink, per botne SO 

past*" form, per tube 60 

Gold Ink. per bottle JJ 

Wlverlnk '■ ^ 

Ames- Best Pen, V4 ftross box 80 

■• grosabox .- • W* 

.\mes' Penman's Favorite No. I. groMC.. . 90 

" i^eroBsbxfl. 86 

Engrosslng'Pens for lettering, per doz S6 

Crow-qulllPen, very fine, for drawing, doz.. 7S 
Sonnecken Pen, for text lettering— Double 

Points— set of three 20 

Broad— set of five ... 26 

Oblique Penholder, each lOo. ; per dozen 1 00 

"Double" Penholder (may be used either 

straight or oblique), eacn lOo.; per dozen, 1 00 
Oblique Metal Tips (adjustable to auyholdert, 

each 5t!.; perdozen 86 

Writing and Measuring Ruler, metal edged.. 30 

" plain 16 

New Improved PantoOTaph, for enlarging op 

diminishing drawings 75 

Ready Binder, a simple device for balding 

New Handy Binder, light and strong 75 

Common S-^nse B'nder, a fine, stiff, cloth 

binder. Journal size, very durable 1 50 


Roll Blackboarfls. By express, 

No. 1, size a xSfeet i oo 

No. 2. " 2}ix3!4feet i 50 

No. 3. " 8x4 *' 2 OO 

Stone Cloth, one yard wide, any length, per 

yard, slated on one side 126 

^^ inches wide, per yard, slated both sides. 2 25 

Liquid Elating, che best in use, for walls or 

wooden boards, per gallon 00 


on good bank note paper is kept In stock, and 

orders will be filled by return of mull or express. 

The fractional denominations are : I 's, 5*8, lO's. 25's 

iif liftoen hills fin-h. They lire proportioned so afl 
iimke 3 om". a (wos. l five». 2 tens, and on© each of 

The proporlkm In which the different denomina- 
tions are printed is that which long eiperienoehas 
demonstrated to best iue«t the demands and con- 
venience in business practii'p. We cannot furnish 

the Script In other [■ro|iiivt!riiis than those named. 



mailed upon appiliuiion. 


have stock di'ii 

our facilities are unequr 
Also we have the hrst ft 

if display CI 


s for making photo- 

unequalled. >end f or f>filimateii. 

it of the thoQsanda of ( 

peared In Tub Joon: 

ur pubtloatlons, 
w prices. 
w, any standard 
o any bookkeep- 


irk on penmanship in print 

" ih« monev with ordei . ... 

goods will be 

., _, -ess, C. O. r ■ 

advance is made to protect 

have forgi 

imerclal ELnthmetlo or other * 

with order, in all cases. Unless 

4 mpt no goods will be sent by 

express, C. O. D.. unless a 

oask us ir wt^ 

We hiindle n 

jut -eliablo goods, and all who fav< 

>rd$rs are assured of prompt and efficient service. 

Addrsia D. T. AMES, 203 Broadm|, NiM Yorli, 


Some books are so well written and pro\e so valuable to their 
owners that thieves steal their contents, and by misarrangement 
of them, make books which they Ir)' to palm off as superior to 

the "rigin:iN. 

Graham's Hand-Book of Standard Phonography 

has been pirated from, to a greater extent, probably, than any 
book ever published in the United States. 

^W H "ST ? 

Because it is the best text-liook on the subject ever published, as 
is proved by the fact that it rendered obsolete all phonographic 
books preceding it, all of which are now out of print, and by the 
fact that the best portions of all phonographic books published 
since have been stolen from it. 

Wlinl evidence is there that it is a standard work ? 

It has been published 32 years withoui change because none 
has been found necessary. 

It has been used for years in many of the best institutions of 
the country, and the system it teaches is used by the best report 
ers in the world. 

These are facts which can be proved. 

Send for a free copv of All. .ViioiM [^iionocraphy, the 
hiiiicsl .Mill hiiiidsomist slimthaMd ciicuiar ever published. 


Author and Publisher, 

744 Broadway, New York. 

Graham's School of Shorthand and Typewriting 

50 West 22d Street. New York. 


One Hundred Viluable Suggeitloni to Shorthand 

I S H O R, T H JL1>T D. 


1 FREE. 

to colleges for cxntnlnatioo. Write, 

H. M. PERNIN, 8-tf 

t INi-TITUTR. Trial I 


ACK Nvm 

of The .TonRNAL c 

anr Mrs. Packard's Complete LessoDS 
'Shorthand for sale. Pricu $1.7.5 per 

Best Work en Shorthand Ever Written. 


The author of this work is Prof. Alfred Day, a shorthand 
reporter of 25 years' experience, author of "Aid to Graham," 
•■ Shorthand Copy-Book," &c.. President of the Cleveland Sten- 
ographers' As.sociation, Principal and Proprietor of Day's School 
of Shorthand. 

It does not pretend to be a new system. It presents Graham's 
System in a wonderfull)' simplified form, doing away entirely with 
the objections that have been made to that system by reason of 
its interminable complications. Prof. Day has removed these 
stumbling blocks, making the path of the student entirely plain. 

The results obtained by this work are unetjualed in the history 
of shorthand teachers. The publishers will be glad to give scores 
of testimonials from those who have aeijuired proficiency in a re- 
markalily short time with no other teacher than " Day's Complete 
.Shorthand Manual." 

The book. Iieaulifull\- printcil .ind bound in cloth, will be sent 
by nuil post-paid t.. ,mv .ulduss on receipt of the price, $1.50. 

ilFOURTH edition mm 


THE BURROWS BROTHERS CO., Publishers, ,.^ 
23 to 27 EicLiD Avenue, - Cleveland. Ohio. 

The Remington Standard 


by Ihc best invcnlive and mcchnnicnl 

skill, aided by capital and the 

experience gained durinR 

the ru-TKKN Vbaks in 

which it has been 



KATiu Catalogue. 

PPycko^', Scamans & Benedict, 

.537 Hroadvvay, New York. nu 



And Take Good Positions as 
If voii can write Shorthand and rfo i,oi have 
I position or are not sat sficd with the one you 
We can locate you as soon as jou arc com- 
cnt. but we want to htov of our otun 
■wUd^e what you can do. 
Vc want younK men and young ladies to 
Shorthand of us by mail, or personally. 
■cure flood positions for all pupils when 


Paper \A/'arehiouse, 

Nos. I 5 & 17 Beekman St., 


'^i St$^o5'•aph$^ 


The Typcwritiiift Dc-piinmciit is cor»Iucti-f1 hy 

Bates Toppey, author of " Ppactical Type- 

The Stenographer Pub. Co., 

The Capital City Commercial College 
The Capital City School of Shorthand, 


Quickly Icurii, 
boSy. Work <ni 

ular. Machines, niU'il .^i tn^il. 

rBrtno,.lfo«iJ3. (11-121 !li. Louii. Mo 

The Eook-Keeper, 

pfc'iiUy Inthe 
Inttrests of Office-Mtn. 
eo Cents a Year. 



1>ETR01T, MICH- 

A sijI^-rlU-r wr't«'s: "Each numlwr of Tnc 
to'oK-Ki:erKR \* worth many tlmc« the cost ol 
I yejir'8 sutMtcriptton eo me. Wniiltl not be 


PART from its inwiense prac- 
tical value," says the Cyclopedia 

of Education, "Shorthand 

has a high educative worth which 
should commend it to all good 
teachers. The first point which 
a Principal, thinking of "intro- 
during Shorthand into his school, 
'has to decide is, the system to be 
adopted, and no hesitation need be 
fell in recommending Isaac 

Pitman's Phonography 

because- It IsmsY I., -.■ntr. e,i^y to 

Stenographers, schools of and 
type-writing hav been established in var- 
ious parts of the country, and, with few 
exceptions, all business colleges now hav 
a " department of shorthand." A number 
of systems ar taught, hut that Of Benn 
Pitman is more generally used than any other 
in this country, and may be calird the "Amer- 
ican System."— £.-/™./ from the Report of 
the Commissioner of Education ( Washington. 
D. C). for the Year ii&-]-»S. page c}2T. 

For catalog 
by Benn Pitma 




National "stenographer, 


A thousand years as a day. No arith- 
metic teaches it. A short, simple, practical 
method by E.C.ATKINSON, Principal of 
Sacremento Business College, Sacrcmento, 
Cal. By mail, 50 cents. Address as above 

H f 1^55 N) t : Hf" k.0^^ A] e KOT." 

by S. P. Holt, Feeding tliih, Mass. [From a Colored Prijii.) 


Your name on 15 cards, various 
combinations, 25 cts. 

A set of Combination Capitals for the 
small sum of 25 cts. 

A set of Business Capitals, neat and 
trim, 25 cts. 

System of exercises fur develop- 
ing Muscular Movement, 25 ct^. 

Written Compendium embracing' 15 
lessons and all movement exer- 
cises, fresh from the pen, gi 00. 

Any of the above are well worth 
your money. Send stamps, money, 
orders or postal notes. Address, 

Box 63, Station W, 




Adapted for use with or without Text-Book, 
and the only sot rc-('ommcuded to 


Bryant & Stratton 


. sirr. 






NG sr 










rable arrangomeuts made with Businesa 
Bsaiiil I'ublic find Private Schools for Intro- 
n and use. Descriptive List Dow ready. 

ebest Pc-n in the T' S,. find best pfnmeniistt them. 





: 119&I21 William St.. N. Y. 

No. 138. 

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V^oL. XV.— No. II 



II ol 

an K> 

ate W 



ii> b) 


of a 1 

d Will 


or the 

nioiti i« 






lias O 





THE OLD SAYING that "Truth is 
stranger than fiction " is so trite 
upon the universal lips under small prove 
cation of facts a little out of the com- 
mon ihat it seems to have lost some of ita 
savor. And yet it is an boutst expression 
and one pregnant with satire vipon the 
weaknesses of human kind. To the 
specialist In handwriting who makes pro- 
feasional use of his knowledge the saying 
comes home every day with renewed force. 
For, more Ihan most msn. the handwriting 
specialist is calUd upon to flash the light 
of his professional skill on the dark side of 
life; to bring the deep-laid schemes of 
conspirators under his microscope and 
track crafty thieves to their lair by the 
footprints of their own sinning. 

In a i)rofe9sional exptrience covering 
twenty years os an examiner of disputed 
handwriting I have had occasion to inves- 
tigate some of the most astounding crimes 
ever born of cupidity, revenge or malice. 
There was the infamous Morey' Garfield 
letter conspiracy, of which every school- 
boy knows. There were the Cadet Whit- 
aker trumped up "outrage case;" the 




with a bogus widow grasping for millions; 
the Miser Paine will case of ]Sew York, 
wilder romance than the most audacious 
tictionist would dare to pen; the Fuller- 
Rowell forgery case in Vermont, where 
expert skill unaided bent down the positive 
eye witness testimony of five apparently 
disintc-eattd jcrsons and opened the doors 
of the penitentiary to them ; the Raymond- 
Dodge suit at Plymouth, N.H., in which 
the cunningly woven fabric of the forger 
was so completely destroyed in open court 
that his attoinejs threw up the case and 
their client was in the cu&tody of the shei iff 
live minutes after the expert testimony 
was given; the Iluo'cr Long forgeries in 
Philadelphifl. with hundreds of thousands 
of dollars at stake; The Fiudlay letter 
Congressional investigation, extensive 
frauds in the U. S. Navy Depart- 
ment, N. Y. Custom Uouse and twenty 
other Government cases, involving in the 
aggregate prodigious sums. These are a 
few of the notable cjiscs from hundreds 
which run the gamut of every sort of pccu- 
latioQ, fraud and imposture known in the 
calendar of crime. But of all the instances 
coming within this professional experience 
of twenty years iu which the smell of "old 
has drawn men into the whirli)rol of 
crime, I can recall none which stands out 
more prominently ihan the gigantic con- 
epiracy to sieal the estate of the late A. J. 
DaMi, multi millionaire banker and mine 
owner of Butte, Mont. 

^^M^^i^ a^ ^ 3*fe, ^ ^ ^.£^c^ a^ai.,^ ^,^>>^^.^ 
"I £^ jU*'^^<. ^a.i/-t4/ c^43€e 'tfcK ^^c^.,^ 

"Our c^ ^&t.*#tc/ f^c3^^;^^-it<«^ £^»M^,^ Y ''^H.A*^^^^-^ 

.^,v-— -1= 

^^ o^.t:^^A^ 

(p^ -W^i^'t^Jiof -t^^Ofd^ J<1*^%^ 

Andrew J. Davis was born in Massachu- 
setts in lbl9. While yet a young man he 
followed the star of empire West and was 
in California during the gold craze of '49. 
Later on he drifted to other sections, liv- 
ing at ditTerent limes in Iowa, Indiana 
and Michigan, and finally settling in Mon- 
tana, where he became iulercsted in bank- 
ing and land speculalion. He was a 
shrewd, level-headed man, with a great 
faculty for making money. He had prop- 
erty interests at many points, but it was 
at Butte, Mont., that the real foundations 
of his enormous fortune were laid. He 
died there in 1990, leaving an estate that 
is estimated at from $7,000,000 to $13,000, - 
000, the variation being due to the more 
or less fluctuating value of stocks and 
mining properties comprising a large por- 
tion of it. 

Mr. Davis was never married. His next 
of kin at the time of his death were three 
brothers, Irwin, Calvin and John A. Davis; 
four sisters, and the children of three de- 
ceased sisters and one deceased brother. 
For some lime after his death it was under- 
stood that he had died intestate and that 
the property would be equally divided 
among these eleveu lines of inheritance. 
He had told a number of his friends a 
short time before his death that he had do 
will. Furthermore, an old friend and 
business associate, Banker Knight, who 
had not a cent's interest in the matter, 
came forward to say that he had written 
a will for Mr. Davis about 1880; that Mr. 
Davis had subsequently destroyed the will 
in his presence, saying that it would be 
just as well for the law to divide the es- 
tate, and had e.vpres&Iy declared to him 
that he bad never made a previous will. 
This declaration was emphasized in Mr. 
Knight's memory by the fact that when he 
had prepared the usual rtvocation ciujec. 
in the will he drew for Mr. Davis the lat- 
ter had objected to it on the ground Ihat 
it was useltss, inasmuch as he had never 
made any previous will wbattver. These 
facts were also duly attested by a 
witness of the will of 1880, Dr. 
Kietb, a physician now residing at Lead- 
ville. Col., who is also wholly wirhout 
interest in the matter. A few weeks after 
Andrew's death application was made by 
h's brother John to the Piobate Court at 
Butte for letters of tdminislraiion. which 
were granted to him. John thus applied 
for administmtiou on the plea (hat his 
brother Andrew left no will. One of the 
nephews opposed that applicatitn on the 
ground of John's unfitntJB. When the 
court at Butte decided in the uncle's favor 
the nephew appealed to the Supreme 
Court, consisting of three judges. That 
court finally decided in Juhu's favor by a 
vole of two to one, ihe Chief Justice being 
the one dissenting. The thief Justice 
held that the evidence showed that John 
contemplated defrauding the other heirs 
and therefore ought not to be adminis- 
trator. The argument of that appeal in 
the Supreme Couit tlicited a siate of facts 
calculated to make the outcome of the 
appeal at best doubtful. Tbe opening 


argument was made in July, 1800, and the 
ojiiDion of the coart was oot rendered uo- 
lil Dectmber. It was after that openioi: 
argument in .Tulv, and during that intcrvul 
of doubt and uocertaiot; of the success of 
John's applicalion to be put in charge of 
the estate, that he was forlunffte enough 
to discover the alleged Vf^ill of 18G(I. 

A few months after the death of Mr. 
Davis it was announced that somewhere 
In the back woods of Davis County, la., 
Komc one bad "discovered" a document 
drawn up twcDty-flvc yeara ago, duly 
signed by A. J. Davis, bequeathing sub 
(ttantially ibe whole of his property to his 
brother John. Although this brother, 
the adniiniplrator, had jhortly before made 
an Rftidhvit that there was no will he sud- 
denly turned up wiih the paper in his 
posseflsioD, aeking that in accordance with 
its provisions the vast fortune of bia 
brother be turned over lo him aa its lawful 
owner. This development was all the 
more astounding as every one knew tbBt 
the deceased had not cheiished a special 
regard for liis brother John, -whose habits 
and reputation were not such as to endear 
him to a man of A. J. Davis' sturdj cbar- 
acler or lo rtcomnund him as a proper 
person to manage a gteut fortune. In fact, 
they had bad violent quarrels, and Banker 
Knight swore that in the will he drew for 
A. J. Davis in 1880 bia biotbtr John -was 
Ignored entirely. It had also been well 
understood that other relatives were much 
nearer to the millionaire; that be had 
promised time and again to provide for 
them handsomely, and on his dying bed 
bud fcut for one in particular, Mrs. Ellen 
Cornue, a favorite niece who bad been for 
years as the apple of bis eye. 

This was perfectly natural and consist- 
ent. The mother of Mrs. Cornue was Mr. 
Davis' eldest .'lister. She bad raised him 
and be ever held the fact in grateful re- 
membrance. Since the tisler's death her 
daughter had been avowedly the uncle's 
favorite. He looked after her ediication, 
took her traveling with him and bestowed 
upon her every mark of affectionate re- 
gord. While a legal division of the prop- 
erty such as would have been made in the 
absence of a will would have given Mrs. 
Cornue a comfortable fortune, the surprise 
was rather that he did not bequeath to her 
(he bulk of the estate. 

Tbeae and other circumstances equally 
inexplicable to those who were in the best 
position to be posted with respect of this 
matter led to the investigation into the his- 
tory of the alleged will which culminated 
in a six weeks' court contest at Butte the 
past summer. To follow this trinl in de- 
tnil is wholly out of the question, but the 
jiiiii of the case is to be found in the facts 
below, collated chiilly from the evidence 
offered at the tiial. and comprising a 
strictly truthful and provable presentation 
of the case. 

The alleged will was claimed lo have 
been executed at the house of James Davis', 
in Davis County, Iowa, in the year 18fln. 
It provides that, with the exception of a 
maintanancc for T. J. and '*Pet" Davis 
(alleged natural children of A. J. Davis) 
and ibeir mother, Miss Burgett, "ati 
three of Van Buren County, Iowa," the 
entire estate of the devisor should pass to 
his brother John A. The executors ap- 
pointed to carry out the will were Jamts 
Davis and his son, Job. The latter is 
alleged by the proponents to have written 
the document. These men were in no way 
related or connected with A. J, Davis. 
They have both been long in their graves, 
and the only living witness of the instru- 
ment is one J. C. Sconce, who tigured 
prominently in the recent trial. We pre- 
oent berowilh a sketch of this "only 
living witness," from a photograph. If it 
errs at all it it on the side of investing the 
subject with mor» respectability of appeor- 
ince than th« flesh and blood Sconca «ver 

At the trial Sconce swore with great 
particularity of detail that be was working 
in the barn of Jamts Davis in July, 1866, 
when A. J. Davis dropped in and requested 
him lo come to the house to witness the 
execution of his will— a request with which 
be piomptly complied. He not only 

ubercd fully 

ely the exact 
from having heard 
it read on that occasion, but was able to 
testify with unexceptionable definiteness 
as to the relative position at the table and 
in the room of every one of a dozen or so 
people who had bein called in to see that 
the document was put through in ship- 
shape style. He swore that he remembered 
exactly at what corner of the table Job 
Davis sal ; just where his father James 
sppeared during the preceedings; exactly 
where A. J. Davis came in ; to say nothing 
of laying into this fine domestie tableau 
t he precise relative positions of Mrs. 
Downey, sister of Job, and sundry neigh- 
bors who hovered around Ihe edges as a 
sort of ornamental background. It was 
drawn from the witness that he bad pre- 
viously signed a contract by which be was 
to receive a large sum of money in case the 
will was sustained by his testimony, with 
a sure per dian and expenses in any event. 
Other damaging admissions weie developed 
by cross examination and a score of Sconce's 
neighbors took the stand to swear that be 
is in fact what his appearance, manner 
and testimony clearly stamped him to be 
— a brazen, consummate villain. Among 
other things laid against him in the 
testimony of his own neighbors were that 
he was totally unworlhy of belief; that he 
had been charged with stealing bogs, 
sheep, cattle and most anything tie could 
get his hands on. 

Sconce was the mainstay of the will, 
and next to bira was Mrs. Downey, whose 
recollection as lo details connected with 
the execution of the will was scarcely less 
wonderful. She, be it stated here, is the 
mother of the man accused of forging the 
document, and was first to speak of it 
alter A. J. Davis" death. Her memory 
was superb. Twenty-five years had not 
counted for so much as to blot out or even 
blur the smallest detail. In all, fourteen 
people swore that at some period prior to 
the death of A. J. Davis they had seen 
this will in the Iowa farm bouse. One of 
them happened to he shingling the roof 
when he saw the will laid out in the sun 
to dry, together with other documents 
that had been wet. Another swore that 
on one occasion his curiosity led him to 
explore the recesses of a trunk that fortr-ed 
a part of the family belongings. While 
engaged in this praiseworthy occupation, 
unknown to the trunk's owners, he fished 
out this will and read it. Bolh of these 
witnesses and others were perfectly certain 
from casual reading as to the exact pro- 
visions of the will, and remembered it 
well enough to identify the various hand- 
writings which it contained. 

Of the fe'urlcen sustaining witnesses 
Including "Only-Iiving-wilness" Sconce 
and two other Sconces, twelve were proven 
to be connected by blood or marriage with 
the roan charged, with what reason will 
hereafter appear, with having manufact- 
ured the document from beginning to end. 
This man is James R. Eildy, a nephew of 
Job Davis and son of the Mrs. Downey 
mentioned above. He is a man about 
thirty years old, with a reputation for hon- 
esty and integrity so bad that the counsel 
of Jtihn A. Davis gave as a reason for not 
producing him on the witness stand that 
it was not thought the jury would believe 
anything he said, although he was in court 
during the enlire trial. 

Eddy figures as the " discoverer "of the 
will. When the ntws of A.J. Davis' de- 
cease reached thai part of Iowa and the 
Ulk turned on the lonely millioos that he 

lift lx.hind him, the story of the pro[>o- 
nents is that Mrs. Downev suggested to 
her son Eddy that there was an A. J. Davis 
will knocking about the house somewhere, 
and that the young man, acting upon the 
suggestion with commendable alacriiy. 
ran down the document. Then he quietly 
notified its beneficiary and entered into 
negotiations for its transfer. What the 
consideration for this transfer was those 
who are endeavoring to sustain the will 
dared not say, and tney succeeded, uceUr 
the judge's ruling, in blocking every effort 
of the contestants to get at the matter, al- 
though it would have aided their case 
greatly with the jury to have established 
the fact that the proceeding had an hon'^st 
and business-like basis. 

This constitutes another of the mooy 
strikintily unioue features of the case. 
Upon any supposition of honesty what 
had the projwnents to lose by put- 
ting upon the stand the man who "found 
the will, and who was accused by the other 
side of having manufactured it, to explain 
how it came into his possession and the 
circumstances attending bisturningit over 
to the beneficiary ? In point of fact, in 
opening their case the proponents referred 
with great show of indignation to the 
charges that had been laid at Eddy's door, 
promising definitely to place him on the 
stand in order that the whole story might 
be told— a promise that was never fulfilled. 
Neither did they dare to permit the bene- 
ficiary to take the stand in explanation of 
the circumstances attending his getting 
possession of the document. No more did 
they attempt to explain that at a time 
when John A. Davis swore that be had no 
idea of the existence of a will he had 
with admirable forethought contracted to 
pay a large sum for the transfer to him of 
any interest in his brother's estate that the 
natural son, T. J., might be entitled to, 
although the cloud upon T.J.'s jiaternity 
left him no standing in court except by 
specific bequeit. 

More astonishing still, John A. Davis, 
who at the time of the alleged execution 
of the will and lor six years after was a 
neighbor and intimate with the James 
Davis household and all the witnesses to 
the will, swore in an affidavit only a few 
weeks before the "discovery" of the will 
that he had never heard of his brother 
having made a will. Although so many 
people had seen the will that U witnesses 
to it could be produced in couit, and al- 
though it was knocking about the house 
for 25 years, open apparently to the inspec- 
tion of every chance visitor, no one bad 
hinted a word about it to the lucky John, 
in whose favor it had been drawn. 

Many other admitted facts apart from 
the damning internal evidence of the doc- 
ument itself strengthen the extreme im- 
probability of its genuineness. Here are 
some of these circumstances; 

It was proven that Miss Burgett and her 
daugbl(r, specifically mentioned in the 
will as "all three of Van Buten Couuty, 
Iowa" had not been residents of that 
county for ei»ht years at the time of the 
drawing of the will, but lived in Texas; 
in fact, that the woman was not then a Miss 
Burgett at all, but had in 1853, thirteen 
years before, married a man named Smith 
and bad removed to Texas with her daugh- 
ter in 1858; that all these facts were per- 
fectly well-known to A. J. Davis. It was 
also shown that T. J. Davis, one of the 
three minor beneficiaries, was not " of 
Van Buren County" at all until 1876, ten 
years after the will was drawn. 

It was proved that at the time of the 
drawing of this remarkable document the 
old father of A. J. Davis was living and 
largely dependent upon him, also that he 
bad nine or ten brothers and sisters, includ- 
ing the sisttr who raised bim ; yet not a 
penny of his estate was devised to any of 
them, except John A. 

At Ibe time of the execution of the 
alleged will it was shown that A. J. Daus 
was not a resident of the State of Iowa, 
having previously moved to Mcniana. 
The estate at that time was comparatively 
modest, enough perhaps to live on com- 
fortably. Although his affairs prospered 
inMoniana and his fortune grew until he 
had v'led millions upon millions, the 
audacious contention was made that he 
permitted this crude dccument to stand 
without change, never speaking to any one 
of it or bothering himself concerning it. 
At the time of destroying the Knight will 
in 1882 both executors of the previous 
dccument were dead ; yet the upholders of 
the alleged will had the effrontery to claim 
that a man of A. J. Davis' thorough busi- 
ness habits allowed theexecutoriess docu 
ment disposing of millions to continue 
knocking around the Iowa farm house for 
twenty-five years without even so much as 
inquiring after it. 

A. J Davis was a man of parts. It is 
in the highest degree improbable that a 
person of his caliber would have signed so 
frightfully a constructed document as 
is this alleged will, which contains 
many grossly mis-spelled common words. 
"Guive," for instance, appears for "give," 
"wberther" for "whether," " sheat " 
for " sheet," " sbal " repeatedly for 
"shall," " worldy " for "worldly," etc.— 
not at all the kind of mistakes that might 
occur from haste or oversight, but con- 
stituting a distinct individuality of ignor- 
ance. In the same line ore the many 
eccentricities of punctuation in the docu- 
ment, especiolly with reference to the plac- 
ing of the period in front of the words "I," 
"of,'' etc., in the middle of a sentence, and 
omitting it from its proper place at the 
end of the sentence. Exactly these errors 
of spelling and punfttuatioif are repeated 
in documents admitted to have been 
written by Eddy. As he was u youth 
under eight years of age when the alleged 
will is claimed to have been made, it is 
clear that he could not have written it at 
that time; hence the proof that he wrote 
it is proof that it is an impudent forgery 
of recent date. I shall go further into 
this matter in connection with the hand- 
writing part of the will. 

More than that, numbers of witnesses 
who knew Job Davis intimately testified 
that be had a wide reputation for being a 
good speller. He was a teacher by voca- 
tion and spelling was his forte. lie was 
the pride of the community in the "spell- 
ing bees" that constituted one of its chief 
amusements. The exact reverse was testi- 
fied to with respect of the alleged forger 
of this document. And not only that, but, 
as I have said, bis eccentricities of spell- 
ing queer as they are, coincide exactly 
with the orthographical curiosities of the 
alleged will. 

The contention of the contestants was 
that the will was an impudent fraud 
created by J. It. Eeldy with the connivance 
of various other interested persons. Apart 
from the improbability of the existence of 
■uch a will under the circumstances, the 
document itself contains such palpable 
evidences of fraud that it is doubtful if 
twelve honest men could be found any- 
where in the world who would not in- 
stantly pronounce it a forgery upon a proper 
demonstration of the facts as evolved from 
this internal evidence. That ihis was not 
instantly done is wholly due to the ruling 
of the presiding judge absolutely exclud- 
ing everything in the line of professional 
expert testimony as to handwriting, seal- 
ing the mouths of those who could have 
demonstrated in ten minutes, and beyond 
the shadow of a doubt, not only that the 
document was spurious, but that it was 
made by a certain hand. Not a scrap of 
handwriting was allowed to be handed to 
the jury for purpose of comparison, so that 
the contest was really fought under the 
greatest disadvantage by the contestants. 
And with all these points in favor of the 
conspirators — with every particle of sus- 
taining evidence allowed and the best part 
of the contestants' evidence excluded, the 
change of a single juryman would have 
given the verdict to those who attacked 
the gi nuineness of the document. 

I propose to go into the expert phase of 
the case briefly and let The JoniiNAL 
readers judge for themselves if there could 
be any possibility of doubt either as to the 
flpuriousness of the document or its autbor- 

Thc instrument itself is a curiosity. In 
order to give it the appearance of age it 
bad been carefully steeped in some liquid 
concoction, perhaps coffee or tobacco. 
The edges had been scolloped with a knife 
or scissors and grated down to give the 
appearance of crumbling from age. To 
further carry out this idea the paper had 
been partially carbonized by beat, and was 
punctured with pin holes in simulation of 
holes which often appear in the creases of 
old papers. 

It was perfectly clear to the professional 
eye also that the alleged signature of A. J. 
Davis had been written on the paper be- 
fore the body of the document was drawn. 
The reason of this is obvious. The forger's 
first eont^ideration was to produce what he 
regarded as an acceptable 3ignatu£& and 
when he got one to his notion, having 
previously prepared the paper so as to 
simulate age, it was easy enough to write 
in a will over it, this order of procedure 
involving much less labor than to have 
written the body of the instrument and 
then perchance have to do the work over 
again on account of producing an un- 
watisfactory signature. Job Davis, the 
alleged author of the body of the docu- 
ment, had been cold in bis grave for over 
twenty years and mighty careful were the 
conspirators to rake over the neighborhood 
for every letter of his, every scrap of his 

writJDg extant, aod place them where they 
would not be likely to rise up as accusing 
witneasea. This is a perfectly reasonable 
inference from the sudden and mysterious 
disappearance of many examples of Job's 
writing that up to the alleged discovery of 
the will were known to be in the neighbor- 
hood, niiion^ ibcm the records of the 
school he had taught. 

To convey any accurate impression of 
this instrument or properly represent it by 
engraved plates is quite impossible. Be- 
sides the peculiar phases mentioned relat- 
ing to the general appearance of the paper, 
the writing varies widely in form, size, 
slant and shade and is in every particular 
bad. The peculiarities appear to proceed 
partly from intentional disguise and partly 
from its author's ignorance and lack of 
manual skill. 

ink us^d iu the disputed document was an 
analine ink, which had not come into u^e 
at the time the will was alleged to have 
been drawn. At the same time, they staled 
tbat this fact could only be determined by 
a chemical analysis, which had not then 
been made. The contestants' counsel 
stated this point frankly, and offered then 
and there to have it definitely settled by 
the necessary analysis in open cjurt. Thi? 
offer wa? peremptorily declined by the 
other side. Days afterward the propo- 
nents, with conspicuous bluster, signined 
their readiness for such an analysis, and 
this resulted in the demonstration that the 
ink was logwood, although the result of 
the analysis exictly met the conditions 
that had been previously specified by ex- 
perts for the proponents aa belonging to 
modern logwood ink, and not an article 

Cut 1, this page, represents two lines 
copied from the body of the will. Cut 2 
represents duplicate composition from a 
will proved and admitted to be written by J. 
R Eddy. While in some respects the gen- 
eral appearance of the writing is quite un- 
like that from the will, it being much 
lighter and smaller than is the custom of 
Eddy, yc^ it will be found to be coinci- 
dent in many respects as regards the writ 
ing and particularly in the peculiar coinci- 
dent phraseology and spelling. Observe 
the word "sheet" spelled '*sheat" in 
both instances, also the p''s in the word 
" paper." Throughout the will, with two 
or three exceptions the " /> " is made with- 
out any finishing part. This is also the 

PLATE No. 1. 



From Davis Will. 

~^1h/^ Cytyi^.^^A^<'.Tt^cy 

Oyv^ ^i^c^ cr^ ya^^ (3<^ -^a,x^^ ,u^«>«Ci<>t.-'«Vcy' '-'2»;^ ^' 




Writiiij/ by James R.[dUy 

_<t^«^ c^ /i^/^ tJ ..^^^>t^-0L^/^ieiW^cV fH^ ^tt^x^rue 

Si^s. of Wih^esses to Will 
3) cJ^j". 

5ig. Po Will. 


(J-) Oei\uma- Sljs.of Ji.n\es Pivis 

Cciume 51^ of Jot P^v.s 
CfTiur'iieSiV, of Sconce in 186^. 

Getvuiae Si^j 1866. 

; 1 ) ^^^ct^^tjQy 



A comparison of the document with two 
other wills admittedly written by Eddy 
reveals a startling similarity of bad spell- 
ing, phrasing and general form. Many 
sentences and phrases occurring in the 
different wills are identical, and a par- 
ticularly striking feature is that each of 
the wills begins."" Know all men by these 
presents," which is very unusual for a 
will, but the regular formula employed in 
drawing warrant deeds. All these wills, 
likewise, end alike, and in each the sig 
nature of the testator is surrounded by a 
peculiar and similar frame work of pen 
strokes*. Eddy, be it remembered, dabbled 
considerably in drawing legal documents 
of this character for his neighbors. 

On behalf of the contestants several 
witnesses testified that in their belief the 

that must have been made more than 
twenty-five years, assuming the will to be 
genuine. In view of these circumstances 
one might be inclined to ask if in the in- 
terval between the refusal of the propo- 
nents to have a chemical analysis made 
and their requeit for such a proceeding, a 
private chemical ttst of the contents of Mr. 
Eddy's ink bottle had been made, orper- 
cbance had the propontnts privately tested 
the ink upon the communication from 
Eddy to J. A. Davis announcing the as- 
tonishing discovery of the will among the 
ancient archives of his ancestors ? 

In the accompaojing plates are shown 
portions of the will in juxtaposition with 
Eddy's unquestioned writing, io aid the 
reader in following a brief exposition of 
some of the most atriking coincident char- 
acterifllics as between the two writings. 

habit of Eddy, as is indicated in the 
word "paper," in cut No. 2, also in No. 
22. I leave the further comparison to the 

In cut 6 is prestuted the signature of the 
testator as it appears upon the will and 
two genuine signatures. It will be ob 
served that in the signature to tbe will the 
lines are all very heavy, stiff and formal, 

Tbe dot to the i is peculiarly heavy and 
slants to the right or perpendicular, while 
in both of the genuine signatures it slants 
to the left. All of the genuine signa- 
tures of A. J. Davis that I have seen 
were made continuously from beginning to 
end in a free, flowing hand. In the dis- 
puted signature, with the aid of a glass, it 
is apparent that several rtsts were taken 
during its making and that several of the 
lines were retouched after having been 
made. The flourish under the signature is 

a stiff, formal line, dtficient in quality and 
form as compared with the flourish fre- 
quently made under genuine signatures. 
At the bottom of the oval part of the D in 
the will signature is a conspicuous dot. 
An examination of the signature under a 
glass shows that the U was first ended at 
the right side of the oval. The writer 
then unconsciously began the initial line 
of the a with a dot inside of the D, 
after a manner of habit as represented 
in the »/■ in "will "in No. 2; also 
in the i'« in Nos. 11 and 26 in plate 
No. 2. OD next page. This peculiarity is 
frequent in the initials of the i's, n'ji and 
u's in the body of the will and in Eddv's 
writing. Cuts 3, 4 and 5 represent the 
signatures of witnesses as they appeared 
upon the will. 

I have seen several signatures written by 
Sconce, some as far back as 1809 and 
others very recent. The signatures of a 
recent date compare very closely with the 
signature of Sconce as it appears upon the 
will, while those that were written in '69, 
shortly after the time the will is pur- 
ported to have been made, vary materially 
from the signature in (piestion. We give 
exampUs of the latter class of signature 
in cut 9. We have not iu our possession 
any of the more recent signatures, but the 
marked difference between the oldersigna- 
tures and that to the will is a strong indi- 
cation that bis will signature is a very late 

Cut 7 represents four admittedly genuine 
signatures of James Davis. The reader 
should compare this carefully with No. 4 
and the name "James Davis " as it ap- 
pears in the body of the will in cut 10; 
also with "James Davis " as written by 
Eddy, in cut U. 

Cut 8 represents the only genuine signa- 
ture of Job Davis that the contestants of 
the will were able to find. Compare this 
with No. 5, as against "Job Davis " in 
No. 10 in the body of the will and the Tn 
and combinations that follow at the end 
of cut 11. It will beseen that the signa- 
ture of Job Davis as it appears upon the 
will has no relationship whatever to the 
genuine signature of Job Davis, while in 
movement and form of letters it is very 
close to the corresponding words in the 
body of the will and also in Eddy's writ- 
ing as represented in cut 11. 


References in the paragraph following 
are to the cuts in Plate No. 3, next page. 

To represent both the peculiar spelling 
of words in the will and corresponding 
errors in Eddy's writing, I have placed 
in juxtaposition in cuts 1. 2, 3, 4, 5, 16, 
17, 18, 19 and 20 words taken from 
tbe Davis will and those taken from an- 
other will admittedly written by James 
R. Eddy. Readers will then be able to 
compare not only the peculiar spelling, 
but also the characteristics of writing. 
Cut 6 represents words taken from the 
body of the will, and cut 21 words ad- 
mitted to be in Eddy's writing. It will 
be seen that the forms of the letters are 
not only coincident, but also their ab- 
breviations, the word sometimes being 
written "my" and sometimes part of the 
VI. omitted, making it "ny"; also the 
peculiar left swing of the loop of the y, 
which is heavily shaded. 

Cuts 7 and 22 are giveu to show the pe- 
culiarity of constructing /j's, also to 
demonstrate a coincident habit of omitting 
a portion of the p. Cuts 8 and 23 are pre- 
sented to show not only coincident forms 
of letters, but specifically the termination 
of the final I throughout the body of the 
will ; the lerminal lines of Th, d'», n's. 
Ills and /'s, also many of the «'«, end 
abruptly at the base line. Examples of the 
Vs and (Va are in cuts 8 and 9 from tbe 
will and 23 and 24 from another will 
admittedly written by Eddy. This is 
further illustrated, as well as the com- 
bination of the entire word, in " all," Nos. 
10 and 25. 

The peculiar manner of beginning and 
ending, as well as dotting, the V» of the 
word "in "is shown in cuts 11 and 20; 
the peculiar form of the capital A' in 12 
and 27; the method of inserting figures in 
the body of the will, also in Eddy's ad- 
mitted writing, in Nos. 13 and 2(i. Here 
will be observed the peculiar coincident 
forms of figures, as well as the proportion- 
ing of tbe figure 1 with reference to the 
other figures, it being conspicuou'^Iy large. 
In the will the character tt appears sixteen 
times, examples of which are shown in 
No. 13 There are but four " ands " in the 
entire instrument. In another will admit- 
tedly written by Eddy the character & 
appears sixteen times with no "and." in 
the instrument. Here is a peculinr coinci- 
dence — first, in the persistent use of the 
(£-; secondly, it will be observed that there 
is a wide variation iu the forms and that 
those variations comprehend about the 


frune |>ec'uliaritics as between tbe will and 
EddjB writJD^. Cuts 14 and IflreprescDte 
the form of a capiUl 7'. as it appears in 
the will and in Kddv'* writinp. lo Nos. 
l-l and :1U arc pivto the peculiar fornix of 
the word " of."' It will be observed that 
io fonie iDstances there is apparently a 
break in the down line with a hcavyshade 
on the left of the lower loop of the f\ 
which givcH it an odd sppcarance. These 
peculiar forms are coincident in many 
cases OS bftween the will and Eddj's 
wiitiog, as is also the peculiar terminal 
line ut the center of the / and its general 
nroporlioning. Many other striking co 
incidences are lo be noted in the compari- 
son of the writing of the will with Eddy's 
admitted writing. A* to the value or 
concluaivenws of such comparison in de 
terniining wbelhtr or not tbe same iierson 
who wrote the vsrioua exhibits which we 
have placed under the heading of " Eddy's 
Writing." also wrote the Davis will, the 
render may judge. 

The legal battle over the will was fiercely 
contested on both sides. Among the emi- 
nent uttoineys appearing for the contest- 
ants were Col. Robt, G. Ingersoll and Mr. 
Nalhaniel Mjcrs of New York, Mr. J. B. 
Clayberg and .Judge Warren Toole of 
Montana and Mr. D. II. Payne of Iowa. 

Tbe specinlimlN in hand writing, ink, etc., 
who were cmplnyed in tbe case included 
W. E. Ilagan. David N. Carvalbo, H. L. 
Tolman, A. II. IIodgc»t, M. D. Elwelland 
the Editor of The Jouhnal. After de- 
liberating on the case for five days the 
jury was discharged as being unable to 
agree. The change of a single jurymau 
would have given the verdict to (he con- 
testanla and legally stamped the will a 
fraud. The case is set for trial again 
next April. 

I do not believe that the history of 
jurisprudence can furnish a case that bet- 
ter illustrates the value and the morality 
of expert handwriting testimony than tbe 
Davis will contest, outlined above. Here 
is a case involving enormous interests, 
with dozens of witnesses swearing to this, 
that and the other, cuutradictin^ one an- 
other at every turn — n case that any intel- 
ligent handwriting expeit could have set- 
tled in ftn hour. This thb proponents were 
perfectly aware of. They dared not let a 
scrap of writing go to the jury for pur- 
pose of comparison — nut A. J. Davis', or 
James Davis', or ,Iob Davis' or Eddy's, 
If the document were an hooot one, what 
had they to lose by such a proceeding ? 
If their only hope of success lay in sup- 
pressing evidence and shutting out the 
light, what is the reasonable iofercnce ? 
They, of couree, had looked carefully into 
the matter and had made their private 
comparisons. They fully realized that the 
iniroduclion of writing by which tbe jury, 
in the light oT seieutitic analysis, could 
make comparison and draw its own con- 
clusions meant the utter collapse of the 
cons|)iracy, and there was left to thtm 
only the knave's resource of heaping vul- 
gar abuse upon the experts whose lips 
unsealed would have meant ruin to them. 

Before the trial of the ca<e the contest- 
ants made an effort to get a change of 
venue. One ground urged was a general 
unfriendly feeling toward them in Butte, 
b cause it was feared that a decision in 
their favor might jeopard various local in- 
terests in which the estate was bound up. 
Some of the contestants lived in a part of 
the country remote from Butte, and it was 
feared they might remove the capital, 
while tbe beneficiary under the alleged 
will was a rcsideut of that city and his 
coming into possession of the estate would 
probably insure the keeping of it in tbe 
community. His habits, too. were known 
lo be of a character calculated to inspire 
many of his fellows with a hope of deriv- 
ing some collateral benefit from his yton- 
session of the great estate. But a far 
more extraordinary reiisin for asking for 
the change of venue was the bold declara- 
tion of the conttslants' belief that the 
judge was prejudiced against them. I 
mention this as a matttr of record, with 
DO thought of impugning the judge's in- 
tegrity, but to ^how that the contestants 
apprehended in advance that the views of 
the judfje ou raatttra having an important 
bearing on their case were not in accord- 
ance with what they considered their 
rights. The motion was denied and the 
judge's subsetiuent rulings tell their own 
story. He did not make the Montana law 
relating to the admissibility of expert testi- 
mony and is, therefore, not responsible for 
it, but thire can be no tiucsiiou that if his 
construction of it is correct, the State of 
Moutnna is a vtry paradise for forgers. 
Tbe final txchisiou of expert haudwriiing 
tettimouT, uoltss the expert had actually 


Fa.c-5inr\iles l-romWiil. 

r&.c-iin\iles of Eddy'i wnhix^ 

^'U^. P-^t^. ^:^!W 

04/ ceM^^^^ 



^ ^ f If t- (f^ It- 

0" r (/ (y- /- '^ 



o^ ^a^ejf 

neither a Gcience, an art nor a trade." 
That opinion also speaks for itself. 

The ellect of that ruling was just this: 
Men who for years had made a special 

busineas of the study of disputed hand- 
writing and who had investigated with 
most pains-taking care the particular writ- 
ing in dispute were not allowed to open 

their mouths ou the subject, nor was the 
jury permitted to contrast any of the dis- 
puted writing with admittedly genuine 
writing and draw their own conclusions. 
On the other hand, any person who had 
ever seen one of the parties in question 
pen a line of writing was duly ijualified to 
walk upon the stand, kiss the Bible, and 
gravely testify that he thought such and 
such writing to be genuine because it co 
incided with his general recollection of 
the genuine article — as if any forger would 
not attempt to make his product resemble 
the genuine ! As a matter of fact, this 
highly edifying farce of " expert " testi- 
mony from casual observation and memory 
was protracted through the trial to a 
wearying extent. Dozens of witnesses tes- 
tified to general handwriting resemblances 
ou both sides of the case. In some in- 
stances the man whose writing was in dis- 
pute had been dead over twenty ycara, 
yet the witness felt justified iu expressing 
an expert opinion from general recollec- 
tion without even refreshing his memory 
by recent examination of that hand- 

Is it not a monstrous supposition that 
tbe genuineness of an instrument bringing 
six different handwritings into dispute 
can be beat tested by a court and jury 
without having before it a single pen 
stroke known to have been produced by 
those whose writing is in question? To 
my mind the acme of absurdity is reached 
when the evidtnce adducible by such a 
comparison as may be made by handwrit- 
ing specialists is discarded, and any one 
who may have seen a man write his name 
once years ago is permitted to testify as to 
the genuineness of other writing by the 
same hand. Desperate lawyers may shriek 
about " hired perjurers," " viUftinous ex- 
perts " and the like, but what is their 
opportunity for influencing a case by false 
testimony compared with the qualifying of 
any person as a witness upon his simple 
statement that he had seen the man write, 
although he may be aud usually is unable 
to give a single reason for his belief that 
the writing in question is genuine or not A 

As to the pay of expert witnesses, does 
the lawyer who made this the occaaion of 
gratuitous abuse in the Davis will cose 
give his valuable services from pure charity 
and au luimte love of justice, oris it on the 
stipulation tliat he shall share liberally io 
tbe booty iu case he can stifle justice, main- 
tain a monstrous fraud and divert millions 
of dollars from their legitimate owners to 
the pockets of conspirators ? 

As I have said, some pretext was neces- 
sary to justify the proponents' demaod for 
the exclusion of any scientific examination 
and comparison of the handwriting. So 
Senator Sanders, the leader of their legal 
forces, turns to the experts with righteous 
indignation and raises a lusty cry of " Step 
thief !"— a trick which is perfectly well 
knowu to every pettifogger. Although 
they were not allowed to say a word on 
this point, the exnerts were sweepingly 
denounced as villains and perjurors. I 
have often listened to such wretched 
tirades by attorneys, who, it was perfectly 
well understood, were actually in partner- 
ship with the crime they were defending, 
on the basis of the lion's share of the 
spoils as their contingent reward. Small 
wonder that the delicate sensibilities of 
such a lawyer in such a situation should be 
shocked at the idea of introducing pre- 
cisely the evidence that could not fail to 
come between hira and his prey. 

The status of expert testimony is too well 
rts of this and all other 
sto call for any argument 
No reputable attorney 
t in th 8 unqualified man- 
ner. There may be incompetent and dis- 
honest men who call themselves " experts," 
just as there arc rascally lawyers who li^e 
by dividing the " swag" of thieves and 
conspirators as the price of shielding them 
from justice. Each type is a menace to 
the community and merits the severest 
puuishiiient. Mr. Sanders' denunciation 
of expert witnesses was broad and sweep- 
ing — scoundrels and perjurers all — though 
two of his own witnesses were ink and 
paper ex|)erts employed at $50 a day and 
expenses, ilis own words, therefore, con 
vict him of employing " perjurers and 
swindlers" to promote his ioterests, lie 
had no handwriting experts, for the excel- 
lent rea'on that the most brazen importer 
in that line would not have dared to attest 
the genuine'ness of the will. "Expert 
testimony," be thundered, " violates 

Well, if we are to take as a standard 
the peculiar Sanders stripe of morality — 
tbe morality that stuffs its puckcts by 
shutting off the light from a great criminal 
conspiracy — we are not at all disposed to 
question the ttutemeot. Our readers have 
tbe facts and they may draw their owu 
conclusions. D. T. Auss. 

defined in thee 
civilised counlrie 
on this point, 
would denounce i 

Teaching Children to Write. 


profefsional journals 
have done a noble 
work in advanc- 

popular education 
ID one of the moat 
important of the 
three B's,'" inspir- 
inR the professional pepman, enooura^'iog 
and helping the special teachers and super- 
visors; but there is one more step, and a 
most vital one, which I am Rlad to see has 
recently been taken by the erentest me- 
dium of its kind in the world, the Pkn- 
MAs's AiiT JoruNAL, wbich hft9 done 
more than can ever be estimated to ele- 
vate our profession and win such public 
recognition of our work as wq9 not 
dreamed of a few years since. 

is more attention to the interest of public 
schools, and especially such work as will 
lender practical assistance to the graded 
school teacher, and that is what I shall en- 
deavor to do in the series of articles I have 
been invited to prepare for this depart- 

My experience in public school work has 
convinced me that there are hundreds, 
perhaps thousands, of teachers who are 
striving to do something more in helping 
their pupils to acquire a good practical 
command of the pen than merely placing 
a copybook l)tforc them and telling them 
to th-'iir the forms of the letters (not that 
[ condemn copybooks when properly used, 
as will be explained later.) But they 
find it 

for the reason that they have no practical 
guide to independent work, no means of 
knowing what should be given at differ- 
ent stages of the child's progresF. no re- 
liable source of information to which they 
can go when confronted by the scores of 
ditSculties which so persistently present 
themselves. In short, they are "all at sea," 
and too often become discouraged and 
give up the effort. 

If by giving the result of my experience 
I can assist some of those teachers, I shall 
be gratified. 

I shall endeavor to give aa complete a 
course of study as the space at my dis- 
posal will admit, beginning with the first 
grade or year, and continuing through 
each grade to the 

irigl, School. 

at the same time giving practical, sys- 
tematic instruction as to the management 
of the work at each stage of advance- 
Teachers can give this directly to their 
classes, and if they will preserve in a scrap- 
book the aiticl'S from month to month, 
Ihey will have iit the close a handbook 
containing a definite course of study with 
full directions for its application. 

teachers who have some particular diffi- 
culty not covered in thcrcgvdar articles to 
write me, and 1 will to the best of my 
ability answer questions cither personally 
or tbrouRh Tue .Touhnal. I will also ask 
other teachers of penmanship to help an- 

I wish to give that which the experience 
of the best teachers has proven to be prac- 
ticable and successful rather than elab- 

and I invite a free and frank discussion. 
While the principal object of this depart 
raent is to assist the regular public school 
teachers, there are hundreds of young men 
and women in business colleges and 

Penmanship in Public Schools, 

schools of every class where penmanship is 
taught who should be greatly benefited by 
a careful study of these articles and dis- 
cussions. Although jou may not now 
contemplate such work, the number of 
teachers of penmanship in public schools 
is increa.oing very rapidly, and some day 
you may be called to this field. 

If you are, I hope, for the sake of the 
young minds and bodies intiustcd to your 
care and guidance, that you will not be as 
ignorant of this line of work as I was when 
called to take charge of a graded school, 
and attempted to use the same methods in 
teaching little children that I had found 
successful in business college work, I 

1 be. 


and sought information, but in vain. I 
subscribed for every penmanship periodi- 
cal published and purchased every work 
on the subject I could hear of, all to no 
purpose as far as my difficulties were con- 

The young teachers of lo-day are more 
fortunate, and I hope the interest in the 
subject of public school work will con- 
tinue to grow until the disgracefully poor 
writing now so prevalent becomes a thing 
of the past. 

In order to accomplish this, we must be- 
gin with the child the day he first enters 
the school room, and on the shoulders of 
the regular teachers rests the burden of 
responsibility. Even when there are 
special teachers or supervisors, they are 
almost powerless without the intelligent 
cooperation of the regular teachers; in 
fact, the first duty of a supervisor is to 
train the teachers who have charge of the 
daily work of the pupils. Not until the 
great body of public school teachers of 
this country are brought to realize the im- 
portance of this part of their work will it 
be possible to raise the standard of Ameri- 
can penmanship to the high place it should 
occupy among the nations of the world. 
With these introductory remarks we leave 
the reader until next month, when the 
course of instruction proper will begin. 

Professional Exchange. 

With this issue of Tde Joirnal we be- 
gin the publication of a series of papers 
on the teaching of penmanship in public 
schools by a specialist in this line — Mr, J. 
C, Witter of Bridgeport, Conn. We know 
Mr, Witter as an earnest and successful 
teacher. We have thoroughly discussed 
with him the subject to be presented, and 
have every rtason to believe that the 
couise of instruction he will map out will 
be of great value to those engaged in sim- 
ilar work. It is not supposed that the 
course he will outline will coincide in 
every particular with the methods of other 
public school writing teachers. If it did 
there would be no necessity for jrrcscnt- 
ing it. The object is to make plain meth 
ods by which one teacher has achieved 
excellent results, with the hope and ex- 
pectation that if other teachers have bet- 
ter methods, or methods they think are 
better, they will describe thtm, and state 
their reasons for the faith that is in them, 
for the benefit of the profession at large. 
Comment and criticism on the various 
points of the course as they shall be 
developed are earnestly desired both by the 
Editor of The -ToDiiNAr, and by Mr. Wit- 
ter, who is not so set in his ways that he 
will not gladly modify them if some one 
will show how they may be improved. 

And that point illustrates the object of 
this department precisely. We have no 
hope of benefiting the hide-bound teacher 
— the one who knows it all, is perfectly 

satisfied with his own methods, and im- 
patient and distrustful of anything that 
jars wilh his way of doing things, Wc 
have very lively expectations, however, of 
assisting those teachers who are searching 
for the best way of doing things, and are 
not afraid or ashamed to adopt new ideas 
that will help them to get better results 
from their teaching. All such teachers 
are earnestly invited to contribute to this 
department and to comment upon the 
contributions of others. 

In order to give Mr. Witter the best 
chance for making himself useful to hia 
fellow teachers, we have invited him (and 
he hai agreed) to take charge of this de- 
partment for a term of months beginning 
with the next issue. In promoting the 
objects of this department, he will have 
the fullest co-operation of The Journal's 
staff of writers and illustrators. 

We present herewith some suggestions 
on this important topic, from a paper on 
Teaching Penmanship in Public Schools, 
read by Prof. C. R. Weils, of Syracuse, 
N. Y., before the Business Educators at 
Chautauqua during the last meeting: 

In its broadest sense, penmanship in- 
struction in our public schools is the 
teaching of one of the common necessary 
branches of a plain English education, 
and which from its nature and use cannot 
be regarded as either an artistic or a scien- 
tific accomplishment in this conneclion. 
Entering so largely into the functions of 
cvery-day school experience, it must be 
considered as one of several useful habits 
which every child is expected to acquire. 

Experience proves that the ultimate 
character of this habit will be determined, 
not so much by the instruction given in 
the writing class, as by the nature of the 
application which this instruction may 
find in the daily routine of lesson getting 
and lesson record. If the pupil had no 
writing to do except that given in the 
writing class, the inlluence of this drill 
might become more lasting; hut under 
existing conditions, whereby he is com- 
pelled to devote two or more hours daily 
to rapid, and as a rule carelessly written 
exercises, the writing lesson as usually 
given fails to make any permanent im"- 
pression on the pupil's regular habit of 
writing. The important question there- 
fore is: 'How can we best prepare a 
pupil in the writing class, so that he may 
Icnrn to icritc while engaged in the regu- 
lar lesson work ? ' 

The importance of teaching movement 
as it is popularly understood requires no 
argument, it is conceded by all, but as to 
the kind of movement which should be 
taught opinions differ. 

We tcflch arm movement exclusively, 
and by that I mean the use of the entire 
arm, modified by resting lightly on the 
forearm muscles, and without any action 
of the finger or wrist joints. 

Twelve years of close observation while 
teaching pupils of from five to fifteen to 
write with this movement has convinced 
me that it is not necessary for them to use 
the muscles of the forearm at any time 
except as a vibratory rest; and that the 
use of the finger and wiist joints in writing, 
unless it is involuntary, iustead of being 
helpful, may and usually does operate as a 
cause for limiting free action and directly 
prevents the formation of a correct writing 

The finger movement produced by the 
forearm muscles and limited to the single 
action used in making a straight line 
scarcely needs considering. This action 
can be made by the upper arm and shoulder 
muscles, not only with equal readiness and 

precision, but with ten times the force and 
endurance. The wrist movement has but 
little more of positive value and still less of 
necessity to commend Its use. The true 
writing movement is the combined action 
of the upper arm and shoulder muscles. 
They are never u?ed singly, but always In 
combination, although they may be sep- 
arately drilled to advantage. 

Wc find little difficulty in teaching, joung 
children to write exclusively with the 
arm. The fact is that the average child 
will have lenrned to use his arms readily, 
often expertly, long before the muscles 
which m ve the fingers are under control. 
This larger natural use of the stronger 
members gives to the muscles of the upper 
arm ai.d shoulder a greater freedom of 
movement as well as a more definite action 
than to those of the forearm. I have found 
in many instances that at seven years of 
age the pupil will have gained so much 
control of these muscles that the natural 
arm movement needs little more than to be 
properly directed in order to develop a 
writing movement with which he can 
readily make the required forms. 

The process of trsining the arm in the 
various movements to be used should be 
considered (is distinct from the writing it- 
self. The indicBlcd movement drills are 
simply a highly specialized form of gym- 
nastics, having no necessary connection 
with the writing which is to follow, ex- 
cept as they furnish the vehicle for produc- 
ing it. 

The needed muscular action requires a 
range of elTective exercises which the act 
of writing does not furnisli. Nor can the 
most useful of the exercises be given with 
the pen at all. Absolute muscular force 
must be the basis of the controlled move- 
ment, A condition of strong and positive 
vitality is indispensable; stout nerves and. 
supple muscles will greatly facilitate suc- 
cessful practice. 

The definite motive for each drill is 
easily found. Observation teaches that 
the person who writes much unconsciously 
falls into the habit of always using the 
same movemtnt in forming a particular 
character, and among business penmen 
who write rapidly and with the arm, it 
will be found that in so far as similiarity 
of construction is maintained, all will use 
substantially the same arm action in pro- 
ducing a given letter. But we find that 
in reality there arc but two fundamental 
movements ; The direct vibratory action 
of the forearm on a line with itself, im- 
pelled by the shoulder muscles alone, and 
the pivotal action of the forearm moved 
back and forth by the muscles of the 
upper arm. These combined as above in- 
dicated will, with slight modifications, 
produce the very few type movements or 
strokes necetsary to form all letters. 

By thus knowing even approxiiimtely 
the nature and use of all the movements 
commonly employtrl it ia possible to de- 
termine not only their sequence and rela- 
tive value and which are to become the 
controlling ones, but, in addition, to sug- 
gest a definite system of drills which shall 
discipline the muscles of the arm by train- 
ing them for the performance of specific 
actions in writing 

These definite 
begun the first term the child is in school 
and continued as a required daily drill, 
without the pen, with a dry pen, and with 
pen and ink, for at least five years, or until 
this habit of arm action for all writing 
purposes becomes so far confirmed as to be 
used unconsciously. 

The application of movement to the 
constiuction of letters is not attempted 
until the-first term of second year. Up to 
this time the room teacher has been teach- 
ing the pupils to make and use script 
letters, not as a penmnn&hip exercise 
especially, but as a necessary part of the 
language Icssonp. During this first year, 
however, they will have been carefully 
drilled in movement as above indicated, 
and also trained in position and penhold- 
ing. Init in both cases qiilto independently 
of their script writing. 

[A continuation ol this interesting paper 
will appear in the next JotJUNAL.— Ed.] 

of their 

Initials and End Pieces. 

a short article 


i of papers on Initials 
and Eod pieces. I have 
assumed the respoosibil- 
I Ity, by the aid of his 
i suggestions, of prescnt- 
•'ing them, realizing full 
well that it is not an 
easy task nor one without 

e these: To give each month 
on the subject, accompanied 
by suitable drawings, the text being in 
the line of instructions to young pen 

In addition), we will present a skeleton 
sketch of drawings two months in advanci- 
imd request all young iispirants to submit 
detail drawings built upon the skeletoD, 
for criticisms and commendatory notice 
The best of those submitted will be repro- 
duced in TuE JontSAi. in connection 
with loy own finished design. 

In selecting materials for the work 
choose India Ink (either stick or fluid), 
smooth white pnper or cardboard, fine 
pens, straight and oblique holders and a 
blue pencil for sketching; blue, because 
it will not photo-engrave, thereby obviat- 
ing the necessity of erasing. Brown lines 
in either ink or pencil will not engrave 
well, so see that your work is dead black 
and the lines strong and clear. 

I wilisparenoefforl to make these papers 
interesting and instructive, 
and by submitting your best 
efforts you will aid 
I the work. 

Ittttiurttonit for January. 

Submit drawing of O for an initial suitable to 
accompany an article on '" Originality." Rep- 
resent a trough from n spring of water as ex- 
tending through the O toward the one viewing 
it, with the water flowing freely from it and 
foiling into a stn am underneath, which fluws 
but a few feet to the front and left and disap- 
l>ears over a precipice. Rocks, etc. , on each 
side. Drawing to le 2 inches from left to 
right and 7 inebcs from top to bottom. 

Submit drawing S x 11 inches hosed upon the 
following likclch, shaded aiid shadowed with 
whirling background. All drawings should 
be in my hands by Doe. 10. 

Cost or Ralatnc Boy*. 

A careful investigator of the subject has 
figured out the following interesting " ex- 
pense account," which is declared to be 
'"below the actual figures, if anything." 
" The cost of raising an ordinary boy for 
the first twenty years of bia life is here 
given : Per year for the first five years, all 
expenses, <:100, or ^00 in all; $150 per 
year for the next five years; $200 per year 
for the third five; $300 per year for the 
next three yeais, and $500 for the next 
two, or a total of $1150 outlay by the time 
the boj is of age and able to hustle for 
hniiself." We hope the .''7(ir subscribers 
will renieiuber that the editor has taken a 
contract to raise two boys, and by 
promptly renewing their subscriptions they 
will greatly help us out in raising the fund 
of $8,300 that h-w got to be expended in 
behalf of those boys before our 1-csponsi- 
hilities cease. A hint to the wise is suffi- 
cient.— La Beile Star. 


■The Journars" Private Writ- Short Chats With Learners, 
ing Club. 

■hip SpeclaMy OealKnedfor 


THE PUPIL in penmanship who is 
anxious to succeed must give strict 
attention to position, movement, legibil- 
ity and systematir jrractire. Too little im- 
portance is attached to the latter by the 
aveiage student. Many pupils fail to be- 
come good writers from no other cause 
than trying to do too many things at one 
time. Determine to work on a single let- 

According to last moot 
ment, I present in this issue and on this 
page the first installment of a course of in- 
struction to private learners, by Mr. W. 
H. Patrick of Baltimore. Mr. Patrick 
starts well, losing little time on the pre- 
liminaries of position, etc., which have 
been repeated over and over again in these 
columns. The supposition is that those 
who will be interested in this course 
already know how to sit at the desk and 
how to hold the pen. Of course these 
things are of great importance, and if any 
of the learners should not be fully in- 
formed on this point, I shall be glad to 

Exercises with Mr. Patrick's Lesson. 

to an important particular — that relating 
to the downward tendency of the market. 
Fred. W. Fetta. Richmond, Ind., sends a 
well written letter, but it is unfortunately 
marred by some defects of spelling and 
grammar — almost the least excusable thing 
in a business communication. The best 
letter received, taking all points into con- 
sideration, 18 from Henry S. Gourlay of 
Buffalo, N. r. The ink in which it is 
written is not adapted to reproduction. 
Here is the letter - 

S3 E. Ba 

I St., 

Buffalo, N. Y, Oct. 15, 1801. 
Empikk Flour Co., Rochester, N. Y. 

Gentlemen: — Please ship me at onco i>er N. 
Y. f . freight Four hundred and fifty {iftQ) 
barrels Eagle brand Flour and charge to my 
account. Since receiving your last quotation 
I notice that there has been a fall in the price 
of this brand, and I trust you will give me the 
benefit of ijanie and invoice it at the current 

I inclose Check for Two Thousand Fifty and 


. f-^^-^^^.^^^^ 


ter, movement exercise or word at a time, 
and continue exercising until satisfied that 
you have made improvement. 

In our teaching we always advise the 
front position at the table, and, as far as 
possible, the forearm or "muscular" 
movement. Much has been said in refer- 
ence to these matters in former issues of 
The JonuNAL, and it is not necessary to 
repeat it here. 

We present for your practice this month 
what are termed the short or one- space 
letters, singly and in exercises, arranged 
in the order of simplicity. Begin with the 
small i, singly, and fill one page of fools- 
cap paper; two pages if time will permit. 
Look closely to the form and size of your 
letters, and use a rapid forearm move- 
ment. Then take the exercise following 
this, and do not stop until you sec im- 
provement. Continue in this manner un- 
til you have finished the entire lesson. 

Mr. Gladstone is the owner of the 
largest lead pencil in the world. It is the 
gift of a pencil maker of Keswick, and is 
thirty-nine inches in length. Its distin- 
guished owner uses it for a walking stick. 

assist him if he will make the fact known. 
It is proposed to make the course of in 
stniction, which begins in this number, as 
much of a help to the student as any course 
can he which is not personally given. All 
Journal subscribers have the privilege of 
asking questions, sending their exercises 
for examination, etc. — in a word, all the 
privileges of lessons by mail. Good work 
so submitted will be noted in these col- 
umns, and it may be that selections from 
exercises submitted by students will be 
engraved from time to time. Can you 
imagine a more favorable opportunity for 
learning to write under the direction of a 
very skillful penman and able teacher ? 

In the September issue of The Journal 
I called for a busioess letter covering cer- 
tain given points. The replies have not 
been so numerous as I could have wished, 
but they include three of superior quality. 
The best as to penmanship is from E. M. 
Cruse, Chicago, who sends a very trim 
business letter, but it contains no reference 

7V/"0 Dollars ($2050.75) which balances ray 
back account to date, and for which please 

Kindly on-n receipt and oblige. 

Yours very truly, 

Henrv S. (Jourlav. 

This is, in the main, a good business 
nthont faults. What 
faults as you see them ? I should 
like to hear from Johrnal readers— stu- 
dents, not teachets. Of couree, it would 
not bo fair to get any advice or assistance 
in the matter. 

letter, but i 

More letters go to the Dead Letter 
Office from Saratoga during September 
than from any other post otlice in the 
United Slates. For nine months of the 
year the postal business there is that of an 
ordinary town, but during three summer 
months the business is that of a city of 
more than 100.000 population, and when 
visitors leave the hotels they neglect to 
leave the addresses to which letters m^y 
be forwarded. 



The above plate was reproduced by the half-tone process direct from a large piece of engraving excuted on gray board with 
pen. ink and brush in the office of The Journal. The size of the original is 29 .v 40 inches. The cost of engraving a fine plate 
like the above is well toward $60. This is the largest half-tone plate wc have ever published. 

Penmaxs Art Journal 

Advtrtiaiity rate*, 30 c^nta per nonpareil 
lltif, t'iJtO per inch, each insertion. Discounts 
for term and gpace. Special estimates fur- 
niMhfd on appUcaiion, No advertisement* 
takrn for leju than $2. 

.Siiburription : One year $1 : one number 10 
frntn. So fret tnmplex except to bona ftde 
at/ents who are mhtcrihert, to aid them in 
lakinq Kubacriptions. 

Foreign gubscription* (to countrie* in I'oa- 
tat f/nionl %\'ib per year. 

Rrnd 10 centit for itpecial 'ZO-page number 
iiTt'/A full lint of regular and special pre- 
miumii. Partial premium lint on pages 10»* 
and Wi. 


ew York, Novcnibpr 

, 1891. 





o! pTaor 

VIII Conwplracy— An 




imhip 1 

Public Hclinnlii 

In I'tnmnn«hlp 


irirrl'l Ch 

nrl'.^"R.Vei*i«T>:ol«. e"tc."" '" 



far llni 

,. siudcui* 

duct 0.1 by W 

fs Prlvnte WrlUm 

C. 1'. Znner); 



Pcnmaniihip Tcsclier'ii HotizoD. 
11 Conspiracy-All AotouinJInB 



- Mgh. 



Mt CoUefle 



Of the Du.l 

— Zaner, Relchoer, 

SiTlpi <ipocIiiicn(E. W.Btosor) IBS 

TliP EdIinr'H LeUurr Hour. 167 

wligby s. D. Holll,. 


Il7rf.ii(»(/ the Fenmaunhlp Teachtv'M 

IN THE opeoiofi paper of his series 
relating to the teachioR of writing io 
the public schools, on aDotber page of this 
issue. Mr. J. C. Witter has a good word 
of advice for teachers of ptDtnausbip in 
business colleges and special writing 
schools. The advice is to the effect that 
such teachers should qualify themselves 
for public school work, which would give 
Ilu'ni a wider horizon, grfatlj increasiog 
their opportunities of satisfactory employ- 
mi ut. The conditions of teaching writing 
in business colleges and kindred institu- 
tions tlilTer so widely from the public 
school routine that a highly succesHfuI 
teacher iu either class might be a total 
failure in the other. At all events, he 
would find that methods eminently adapted 
Io one would be wholly inadequate for 
the other. Penmanship teachers who ex- 
piut to get the greatest amount of satis- 
faction from their calling should thor- 
oughly inform themselves as to these dif- 
ferences and qualify themselves to t- ach 
in any kind of an institution. A public 
school writing supcriutcndcnl in an East- 
ern city recently informed us that he bad 
had two offers in about a year to take a 
similar position in other cities at a salary 
of $1500 for ten months' work. These 
positions were filial with great difficulty, 
for while it was an easy muit^^r to pick up 
good teachers with a busioe'S college ex- 
perience it was by no means so simple a 

task to find teachers a^ well qualified for 
public school work. We have known of 
a number of other icstances of this kind. 
Would it not be well for such of our com- 
mercial schools as make a specially of 
training teachers to take this fact into 
consideration and add to their course ac- 
cordingly ? 

tna ttorv of t«rg,ry and tra,,,!. 

The stowv of the great Davis will con- 
spiracy, which we tell in this i^sue, is suf- 
ficiently remarkable to justify giving it so 
much space, apart from its technical feat- 
uies, which are especially appropriate to a 
periodical of this character. We believe 
it will be read with liveliest interest, 
not only by penmen but by Toe Jour- 
nal's "lay readers" as well. Not even 
this great country, which is given to 
breaking world's records in making for- 

labor or mooev to make a first class paper, 
though the pecuniary returiis have never 
been adequate — the prrfils going into im- 
provements. The JomsAi/s claim for 
patronage rests strictly and Eolely on its 
merits — its worth to teachers and pupils 
in stimulating them and arousing and sus- 
taining enthusiasm There is no commer- 
cial or penmanship school in this country, 
wheie a progressive teacher or a bright ad- 
vanced pupil cannot lake a good club for 
Toe Jocrnal, with little trouble and no 
expense. Liberal coccessions are made 
for clubs, both with and without pre- 
miums, and free specimens will be sent to 
aid in taking subscriptions. We have 
laid t-ur plans for a new record in penman- 
ship journalism the coming year, and if 
our friends are true to their promises we 
shall succeed. This is the very best sea- 
son of the year for getting the pupils in- 
terested. We hope to bear from our 

tunes and almost everything else, can af- 
ford many sjuctacles of a princely fortune 
of possibly $13,000,000 dangling by a few 
pen strokes that noimally would be written 
in ten seconds. 


s- Clu 


We have received some very handsome 
clubs for The Joornal, since the new 
school year began. The announcements 
are crowded out of this issue, but due 
credit will be given later, except in such 
instances where the club-sender requests 
that no announcement be made. We 
thank our friends very henrtily for Ibeir 
good offices in The Jocrnai.'s behalf. 
It is to them — the active club-workere — 
that the greatest credit is due for what- 
ever of good is to be found in Tire 
Journal. For fifteen years it has been 
the Editor's aim to make a paper that 
would be tairly representative of the pro- 
fession. Mistakes may have occurred — 
we make no pretension to infallibility ; 
things may have appeared in the The 
JocRSAL which, in the bone-st opinion of 
some, bad better been omitted; things 
omitted which had better appeared; but 
the fact remains that The Jouk.nwl has on 
all occasions done its best to promote the 
cause it represents, and with a degree of 
success that has been highly gralilying 
to its conductor, who has never spared 

friends all down the line— new ones as 
well as the old ones. 

Death of A. R. Dunton. 

A. R. Dunton. one of the old pillars of 
the peumanship profession, died at his 
home in Camden, Me., Oct. 8, at the ripe 
age of 79 years. 

There is not a penman in the country 
who is unfamiliar with the fame of A. R. 
Dunton. Indeed his reputation was by no 
means confined to the profession, but his 
services to the whole people in the cause 
of penmanship are very geuenilly known 
and appreciated. lie may be truly called 
one of the pioneers of modern penman- 
ship, occupying much the same relation to 
this art in the East as Mr. Piatt R. Spen- 
cer did in the West and subsequently in 
the whole country. 

Alvin Robbins Dunton was born in what 
is now Knox County, Maine, in iai2. 
Naturally gifted with great manual dex- 
terity he distinguished himself by his 
expertneas with a pen while still a email 
lad. These were the days before printed 
copy books Young Dunton was a good 
enough penman at 1.3 to be called upon by 
his teacher to set copies for the school. It 
was not until 1835, however, that he began 
teaching penmanship as a profession. His 
first school was at Hale's 31ills, Mass. 
Shortly after he began the career of a 
♦raveling teacher, traversing New England 

and subsequently the Western, >Iiddleand 
Southern States, until he had covered the 

In those early days two styles of writing 
were in use. One of them, most in vogue, 
was the old English heavy round hand; 
the other a sharp, angular hand. Mr. 
Dunton was one of the first to recognize 
the disadvantages of these slylc?, espe- 
cially for business purpose^, and from 
them he constructed a modified style of 
his owu, possessing great advantages in 
the matter of cose and speed of execution, 
while preserving a due regard for the 
quality of beauty. This "A. R. Duntcn 
style,'' with slight modifications, he used 
up to the time of his deaih, and thousands 
of writers also make use of it. 

Mr. Dunton was one of the fir.*it to real 
ize the imporlaoce of uniformity of style 
and method in teaching penmanship. As 
far back as 184! he established what he 
denominated "concert drill." This con- 
sisted in every pupil using the same kind 
of ink. the same kind of pen and paper, 
and all taking Ibe same position at the 
desk, pens all held in Ihe same manner; 
then, with a unifoim movement, as in a 
military drill, at the woid of command 
the pens were carried to the inkstand; on 
a second order Ihey look ink ond on a 
third brtught the pens back in position 
for writing. The first movement he 
taught was the arm movement and then 
arm and finger combined. In these exer- 
cises the entire class was required to make 
the movements in concert, with a regular- 
ity similar to beating timefor music. This 
practice whs continued until it became 
familiar, thus giving pupils an easy, free 
and grat-E'ful movement of the pen. 

Mr. Dunton published his first series of 
copy-books in New Orleans, in 1843. 
There were four books, two for the use of 
girls and two for boys. At one time he 
was associated with Mr. Payson, afterward 
of the firm of Payson, Dunton & Scribncr, 
whose copy-books arc well known. The 
Dunton of this fiim, however, is a differ- 
ent man, and the system published by A. 
R. Dunton was distinguished by the term 

Besides being a teacher of uncommon 
originality and strength, Mr. Dunton was 
himself a splendid penman, both in the 
execution of script and ornamental work. 
Some ofhis ornamental designs are executed 
with a delicacy of stroke that can only be 
matched by the finest steel engravings. Per 
one piece, made on the occasion of the 
opening of the Union Pacific Railroad in 
1807, he received f 1000. As an evidence 
of his great skill in this direction it is re- 
lated that an English writing master, who 
had mode on exhibit of his work at the 
Mechanics' Fair in Boston in 1840, com- 
plained that certain specimens exhibited 
by Mr. Dunton were fraudulent, on the 
ground that they were produced by steel 
engraving and not with a pen — that the 
fineness of the work was evidence of its 
impossibility of production by means of a 
pen. This led to an investigation by the 
committee, and Mr. Dunton fortunately 
set everything to rights by executing off- 
hnnd specimens which exhibited his re- 
markiibii- takut quite as well as those he 
hod piticid on exhibition. In a word, Mr. 
Dunton was .one of the great mastera of 
his art and impressed his individuality on 
thousands of his countrymen. One of bis 
chief gifts was a wonderful quickness of 
motion and sight, and a favorite diversion 
of his was 8leight-of hand tricks, at which 
he was remarkably expert. Mr. Packard 
once introduced him to the Business Edu- 
cators' Association as a man who "could 
out-IIoudin Iloudin," and the feats that 
followed fully justified the cbitm. The 
Editor, while entertaining Mr. Dunton at 
his home, has seen him perform such feats 
of legerdemain as he has never seen sur* 
passfd by any of the profei'sional presti. 
digitatont. Besides his many accomplish- 
menti Mr. Dunton was a man of large 
heart and broad sympathies, and his death 

will be sincerely lameDted by the thousand! 
of warm peiBooal fneDds. 

The 6r9t news that The JorniNAL re 
ceived of Mr. Duntoo's death waa sent by 
H. A. Howard of the Rockland, Me., Com 
Coll., a warm friend and admirer. W« 
take the liberty of transferring a few sen 
fences from Professor Howard's letter: 

I have known I'rofessor Dunton for seven oi 
eight years, and have found him as full of en 
thusifism forpenmanshipasany of our younger 
penmen. While he has not done any pen work 
for several years past, he was a very good 
critic, and the quickest man I ever met to no- 

life, a national reputation for feats of leger- 
deniain, and even up to the last years of his 
life, he could deceive the sharpest eye with his 

Three Skillful Penmen. 

We present herewith the portraits of 
three young men whose brilliant work has 
woo for them a most enviable distinction 
among all who appreciate the penman's 
art. They ate C. P. Zancr, L. M. Kelch- 

the world for himself. He taught pea- 
raanahip a little in 1884, but gave it up 
until 1880, when he settled down steadily 
and has been at it continuously since. Id 
1888 he published his popular " Gems of 
Flourishing," and in the same year founded 
the Zanerian College. Almost from the 
start his work won recognition from 
the old heads of the profession. It is dis 
tinguished by boldness and sureoess of 
stroke, without sacrifice of delicacy. Mr. 
Zaoer wields an uncommonly versatile peo 
and shows equal fertility of resource in the 
lines of script, flourishmg and ornamental 



L.n. ^&LCfAn&R. 

^jj^^^^£<^^7>i4^€^ Ly/^^f// 



/'/^/^ £ jy^^Lo^^/^ 

tice a fault in wTiting ; and his cnticisms were 
usually correct. 

In his residence at Camden, were many 
specimens of his work. Ills drawings of fruits 
flowers, portraits, &c.,aie finer than the finest 
Bteel engravings, but are not adapted to the 
modern process of photo-engraving. 

He spent last winter in Florida, and returaed 
in June to superintend the work of filling out 
the diplomas for the Boston schools. 

Professor Duoton was widely known in this 
section, and was a familiar figure on the streets 
of Boston. In addition to lii-> ability as a pen 
artist and publisher, be had, during middle 

neraud E. W. Bloscr. kno 
corporate name of the Zai 



nod Arlists, and directors of the Zanerian 
Art College, Columbus, O, 

AH three of these gentlemen are Pfnn 
sylvaoians by birth, and all were raised on 
a faira, their school training being only 
what the facilities of I he public schools of 
their respective localities could afford. 
Mr. Zaner's home was near Forks, Pa. 
He was born there on Feb. 15, 1864, and 
was nineteen when he left to strike out in 

work. Many of bis bright produciions 
have appeared in The Journai, and we 
have made ariangements by which he is 
to become a regular monthly contributor. 
The first of a Fcries of illustrated papers by 
him begins in this number. 

Mr Zaoer has been a constant reader of 
the penman's papers, and attributes bi^ 
skill largely to their influence. He found 
the Spencerian Compendium of much 
assistance in getting the " fini&hing 

L, M. Kelcbner wili be thirty years old 
on the eighth of nextmonth. His life was 
sp>?nt on a farm at Light Street, Pa., until 
he was eighteen years old. The next 
eight years he spent running a flour mill. 
It was not until 1888 that he began to 
teach penmanship proressionally, though 
he had dabbled in it a little some time be- 
fore. He became a joint proprietor o( the 
Zanerian College in 1890. 

Mr. Kek'hner also tlianks the penman- 
ship prtss chiefly for his ability in that 
line. Another fruitful source of inspira- 
tion he found to be specimens from noted 
penmen purchased by him. While he is 
a good writer and general penman, Mr. 
Kelchner excels as a flouriaher, and haa 
made many handsome desigosof this kind. 
By far the most striking design we have 
ever seen from his pen is a large piece we 
now have in hand and expect to produce 
next month. It will be the first by «' Tkk 
Journal's Galaxy of Plourishcrs," which 
includes about twenty of the best known 
penmen in this line in the world, 

E. W. Bloser was born at Plainfield, 
Pa., on Nov 6, 1865. In 1883 he moved 
to Ohio, became interested in penmanship, 
and has been following it professionally 
ever since. He became a third owner in 
the Zanerian College only a few months 

We show a specimen of Mr. Bloser'a 
work in this number. It is of the kind 
on which his reputation rests, his forte 
being script work in general and body 
writing in particular. His pen is capable 
of tumiDg a remarkably smooth and grace- 
ful line, as our readers may see. 

The work of the institution of which 
these three young gentlemen are the owners 
and directors can only be properly de- 
scribed as brilliant. Though established 
but a few years it already numbers among 
its graduates many young men and women 
who are making their influence felt as 
teachers and artists. It is Tue Journ,\l'8 
business to keep aljreast of such matters, 
and it is The JotniNAL's pleasure to give 
credit to those who win success by deserv- 
ing it. That this success did not come 
without hard work, but was born of the 
faith and pluck which beat down all 
barriers, may be gleaned from Mr. Zaner'a 
own account of the beginnings of the now 
highly successful enterprise with which he 

"We started with one student and 
enough money to buy bread for one. We 
worked from seven o'clock in the morning 
until nine at night. We contrived means 
of letting people know of our school (if 
such it could be called) and of the work 
we were capable of doing. We were will- 
ing to sow and trust for the harvest. We 
rested not by the way, but toiled on. 
Slowly the fruit of our labors began to ripen. 
Students began to come in now and then. 
Friends were friends indeed, for through 
them we received support we could not buy. 
Prospects began to brighten, hopes mate- 
rialize andljills vanish. A little surplus cash 
and credit aided in mailing another circu- 
lar in which our work appeared to better 
advantage and our purpose in terms un- 
mistakable. Thus it was that our work 
began. Our rooms were getting too small 
for the number of students seeking in- 
struction. We decided to accommodate 
all first-class comers. We secured larger, 
brighter, cleaner rooms. We then began 

IVCRleni l*onmeu«M AiiHOClallon. 

The Western Penmen's Association will 
be in session at Louisville, Ky., from Dec. 
Mr. Enos Spen- 

cer, chairman of the exe 
who has charge of the airangemenls, an* 
nouncts under date of October 28 that he 
has received letters from twenty-one 
prominent members of the profession, 
agreeing to take part in the program, and 
that other letters indicate that over a hun- 
dred penmen will be pre5ent from a dis- 
tance. This will secure reduced railroad 
transportation. Mr. Spencer would like 
to hear from all penmen who expect to be 
present on that occasion, at least by Nov. 
18. The Western Penmen's Association 
is one that every penman in the country 
should take an i^terept in. It has been 
the means of much good, and with a 
broader, more national membership, such 
as it is almost certain to develop, its possi- 
bilities in this direction will be greatly en- 
larged. The Jodrnal will do everything 
in its power to encourage the good work. 

School and Personal. 


>.M ail parU of tbe <x)untrr 
have come rc^ponseii to 
THFjoi-HNALrequwt for 
n'i»firt« of the preuPDt nt- 
t'-ii'lancvauH prospecU of 
<''>niiiK>rcml schooU as 
■ oiiiparod vrfth previous 
>iarH. We oppeiKl ex- 
tracts from tbcee letters, 
whfch wilUcIl their own 
story. The chief object wii» to get a report 
from the bu-rineas-teaehing fii-t<I, and space limi- 

^ olT much I 


olloteral interest in this connection that in 
Douy Instances Hiipplemented the reporla. We 
) And seimrate spnce for this auxiliary 
niutt<?r in an early issue. Moontime we repeat 
the iinitntion extende<I in luttt month'^ JouR- 
KAi., and bhould l>i< pleaded to puldish snimilar 
information from schools not represented in 
the subjoined review. In handling many let- 
tors relntiDg to this mid i>crlmpK other matters, 
it is not unlikely that some of them were laid 
aside and overliwkcd in the fteneral compila- 
tion. In such vase our friends are reque«>ted 
to bring the fact to oui' attention. 

— S. 8. Packard, Packard's Business College, 
N, Y. : — Last veor wos the most prosperons we 
have ever had and we are duplicating the suc- 
cess the present vear. 

- R. E (ialldi^-lKT. Cniiml/i IV C. H-inulr..„, 

thll^ !■. l' ' : ■ ■■ !'■ V ■ ■■■ ■■■■ ■■■ . ." 

— F. E. Wood, Wood's B. C, Scranton, 

- Ueurv C. Wiight. Wright's B. C. Brook- 
lyn. N. Y.:— Our putinnage has increased on- 
nnally and the applji 

houses for clerical help 

dented. So far as y 
it is impossible for me 
to fill the positions at 
activity m business 
work that bivo ii 4.i. 

building, whi.l 

-N. A, Mill., ^ ■ 



N. Y,:-Iu ll... 1.... . 

■■ .iiUndance in 

than half of wlmt we 
this in a great measur 
years the farmers (a 
largely) have had pon 
thetr croiM an- lmkhI 
flush. lumMit. 1 u , 

iii>w biivf, I attribute 
e to the fact that for two 
class who patronize us 
r crops, while this year 
nn.i ■nnii.-v «eems to he 

iraRing than ili. v M^^ie 

- J. M, Frash.'r. Wheeling, W. Va., B. C: 

year and the indications are that we shall have 
a very large additional inci'ease. 
— R. C. W..nd. i..vvii c, c. Onvfiipm-t. la.; 

'ry prosperous and- wo 

— Siirii.-, 1 iMi Ti \- Looiuis, S|>encerian B. 
C.< l■^.^1^.l II - w ,- iiav-po large attend- 

nm-, . 1 - i; ;. 1,1 r, ., i <>ili in theday and even- 
iiij: H ' I ' 'I I-- nf students this year 
ami th, 1! 'V . I I, I- nil. IV satisfactorv to our- 

cnu jiiii>;o the pixv-pivts are got>d for an excel- 
l.iit ^.■^l.n.lIhlsy(^ar. 

— IV (" Ramsey, St.H-ktou. Cal., B. C.:— 
Never iH-i.'if in the history of imr school [and 
It.", gniuih has hevn little le^ than a marvel) 
were the pnwpect*! so goo<l as now. The school 
enrolled (S5 students last year and has 1.5 regu- 
lar teachers, Evrry year ha* s-howu a heabby 

r'studenli> have been enrolled than in 


by about 80 per cent, and last year it 
1.5 per cent, ahead of any previous season. 

— C. M, Robinson, Tri-Stote B. C, Toledo. 
Ohio :— Our school is nearly .W per cent, larger 
than it was this time last ytar. as these figures 
will show: September, H*90, enrollment, 212; 
Sept., 1891, enrollment. 307. 

— E. S. Turner, Dirigo B. C Augusta. 
Me. :— Last .vear was the most prosperous in the 
hirtory of this institution, which was estab- 
lished in IS&i. This year the attendance for 
the month of October is SH per cent, larger 
than for the corresponding month in 18»0. 
Notably is there an increase iu the number of 
young lady students. 

— Williams & Rogers, Rochester, N. Y., 
Bus Uni. :— All things considered our business 

about 20 per cent, better than last year, and 

the outlook 

— A. H. Si 
edo, Ohio. :-( 
its second year 

H. C, Tol- 

— W. H, Sadler, Sadler's B. C, Baltimore : 
-Our attendance, though early in the season, 
s over a thiiil ill advance of last year, which 

it'hool purposes of any 

he country, with possi- 

iceptions. We began with 

Nos. 2, 4, G, 8. 10 and 12, 

- R. W. Fisher, Clinton la., B C. :— 
Every feature of our work is lar in advance of 

comparison with last year's attendance ■ 
Theory Dept. has increased about 20 per " 
. , ., . ",gjnegg Dej- '--- «" 

Special Pe 

■oiled, and we expect from 
X) "35 next term, which is our largest term. 
J. M. M^-hnn. V.V.C.C, Des Koines, 

e for the year, with a nattering outlook. 

Portland B. C has e 

but the students ti- n rule are 
doing better work than ever bi'loif. All de- 
partments are full, the Com. Dept, especially 
so. Everybody is busy and, of course, 

— O. E. Fulghum, Richmond. Xnd., B. C.:— 
Our attendance at this writing is almost double 
what it was at a corresponding period of the 
two previous seasons. As to the general out- 

and have a larger attendnncethanat any 
this season of the year previously. 

— F.J. Toland, Ottawa. ni-.Bus. Uni.:— The 
attendance at the O.B.C. isfullvfour times as 
greot a» it was last year. I have leafed 
' ' ' ' ' ' " e the 


shall be unable to accomodate my students, 
with the additional room secured. 

lother building to which 1 shall : 

the basis of substautial work, and the future 
is full of promise. 

- M. A. Stone. I.Jttle Rock. Ark.. C. C.:~ 
Our attendance is at least 10 per cent, better 

I 18SII. More students have been graduated ii 
the past sis months than in all the previou 
history of the school. The prt 

^e have Quishcd our build- 
ing, and now have it euiirely for school use, 
giving us exceptionally commodious and pleas- 

— E. .T, Heeb, Indianapolis Bus. Uni.: — Our 
school is more prosperous than ever. The 
present is the Inrgfst opening we have ever 
had, and brings to us the best class of students, 
as a whole, that the institution has ever en- 

grade 1-u_mul-^ LUid -hulllKUld --.U^,-K 

— W. H. Shaw, Central B, C, Stratford, 
Ont.:— Our increase for the months of Septem- 
ber and October is at least -lO per cent, in ad- 
vance of last year, which we attribute very 
largely to ihe growing de-sire of the public for 

are for a larger atteudauce of farmers' sons 
this year than we have hitherto bad. 

— H. T. Engclhom, Helena, Mont., B. C.:— 
We are growing in popularity and numbers. 
Our enrollment is already 100. The past 

Inst., New Orleans : — The Bttendanci. 
October opening of our institution wti'- 
per cent, above the average for the 
years. Commercial, public school, : 

condition t 

— W. C. Buckman. Alamo City B. C. San 
Antonio, Texas ;— The Alamo City B. C. has 
been a success from its incipiency and if good 
work by qualified men will secure a continu- 
ance of the same its future is guaranteed. 

— J. S. Sweet. Santa Rosa, Cal., B. C. ;— The 
outlook is fine for a good school this winter. 

— S, S, Gressly. Mc£eesport, Pa. : — Last 
year was rather dull with us on account of 
strikes and a general low ebb in the financial 
world. However, the attendance and gradu- 

all past yeai-s in the history of the college. 
— A. M. Hargis, Grand Island, Neb,, B. C, : 
" * " ' mi opened with nearly 100 new 

opened three 
years ago. 

- C. T. Miller, N. J. B. C, Newark, N. J. t— 
The proti-pecls for a large attendance this year 
are most promising at this moment. All my 
departments are practically full, apd if the 
crowd continues to come at the present rate 
I shall not be able to accommodate tliem. I 
securing the ^ons and daughters of 

fine school tbts 

, the best that i 

, Detroit Bus, Uni,: — Our 

business prospects are excellent. 

— C. E. Comer, Com. Coll.. Boston:— Last 
year was the most succeffiful one we ever btul 
and up to the present timethisyearweareway 
ahead of last year's business. 

— D. L. Musselman, Gem City B. C. Quincy, 
III.:— We have oiK-ned up with the largeeit 
attendance in the history oi the college and the 
probpects are fur the best scliool year we liave 

— Thos. H. Shields. Troy. N. Y,, B. C.:— The 
indications here point to an unusually large 
attendance the coming winter. We bad 172 
students to enter the first week in Octolwr, 
which is .56 more than entered in the corres- 
ponding week lost year. 

~ F. L.Shaw. Shaw's B, C, Portland, Me. : 
—Our increase so far this season is a trifle less 
than 20 per cent. Every year's business with 
us has shown a gratifying advance over that 
of the previous year. 

— R. H. Hill, Hill's B. C. Waco. Texas :— 
For Sept., 'Wl, our school shows an increase of 
over 100 per cent, in attendauce over the cor- 
responding month of last year. This is very 
-"--*- me when I consider the gi-eat 

uow than we had then and tne outlook is very 
encouraging. We have good reasons to be- 
lieve that there will l>e a decided gain by the 
end of the year. 

— E. E. ChiMs,' R. C, Springfield. 
Mas.s. : — Mm -. If i .M,.i - ,i I,. .IiKv u'ni\\lh and 
nDS[n-c(:il I I' '■ r.. "..,••] lorger 

— R. L, Meredith, Sandusky, O., B.C.: 
— We are in nur fouith year anu have reached 
that st-ige where growth isjierhaps most rapid 
' "■ ' years. Our attend- 

that the present year will be the most prosper- 
ous in the history of commercial colleges for 
many years. 

W. L. Beeman. Red Wing, Minn,. B. C.:— 

— C. A. Twining Corry. Pa,. B. C.:— We 
opened our college Oct. 1. and enrolled during 
the tirst three days fi3>^ per cent more pupiU 
than were ever enrolled during the same 
period any^revious year. Our prrspects are 

— Wilbur R. Smith. Pres. Com. Coll. of 
Ky. Uni., Lexington. Ky.: The attendance at 
our college this year is greoler tha: 

A, O. Scholfield. Scholfield's Com, Coll. 
ivTili'iire, R. I.; Since lati'^ my school has 
11 ii-iiiut abouttherate of 25 percent, per 
I 1 lie outlook is wholly satisfactory. 

v: r. A. Becker, Becker's B, C, Worces- 

ship there 

— W. A. Ross, one of the bright young men 
from the Sbeoaudoab, la., Normal Institute, 
has engaged to teach at the Va. B. C. , Bed- 

— Proprietor J. S. Sweet of the Santa Rosa. 
Cal.. B. C, had the misfortune to be burned 
L'ently, losing much valuable property. 

looks after that department a 

the Sauia Rosa College. 
W. H. Horsman, for 

the Metropolis Law School. 

of Nework. O., lately 
college work, is now de- 
n^ all his energies to the publishing busi- 
ness, in connection with Samuel Allison, 'ihey 
have a large business at Newark, and besides 
doing much general work publish an inter- 
esting periodical, The Ladie^ Heatth Journal. 

— L. F. Myers bas accepted a position aa 
teacher of bookkeeping and stenograpbyat the 
Marmoduke Military Sem,, Sweet Hprings, 

— L. H. Jacksrin, late of the faculty of the 

B C 


'a ,hfts formed a busi 
>'.v, Mhirh promises to 
u. ~~ ri,ii,.[;e enterprise 
1 h young men are 
. III. u and business 
.1 ' in accomplished 

of buxioess ahility, graduate acd goldmedalixt 
of Albert College. Belleville. Out., last year, 
Mr. Smith was formerly a telt-graph opei-ator 

ad railway agent 
d preceptor. R. ' 
Ifgv. i^ays he has 

old preceptor. R. J. MacLean of Albert Col- 

Joplin, Mo. Mr, Tbom 

but repeating the growtb of each succeeding City Collage for ten years. 


The above teas designed by J. C. Wilier for the cover of a new pxtblication of his and is something uniqve in f/tts line. As will be seen, Mr. Witter used Fielding Schofield^s 
design of a peacock as a centrcti figure and wishes us to convey Ms thanks to Sir. Schofield for giving such an artistic model of this beautiful bird. 

i deligbt to his correspoudents. Mi*. Motile 
is teacher of peDmanship and drawing both 
in the Fremont Normal School and in the pub 
lie schools of that city. 

— Spalding's Bus. Coll., Kansns City, ba 

relebi-ntcd ii 

has much skill i 

Burdett B. C, Bot 

xtb birtluioy. The 

admires t\ 

ei-vlhiut; c 


.1 with ibt- 


— J. P. 

JVMM ■.■.!. 

■ ., 1 'M. 

.. linva 

be laugbt 



1\ •-' 

watched t 

a boy and 

regard biu 

as an 


to the 


-H. M 

McKee ha 


conductiDg large 


1 clni-es a 

pu>Mbte'.l6. Tbisinfoi 

rrie King, a. Pernin sh'Ttband i 
■tenili' tbe successful one of 4^0 
■ promotion in the U. S. Patent 
i^rapher and tyj'ewriter. In Ibe 
(be received tbe njark of 94 of a 
from the Sagi- 

youug ludy. 

— Our pel . „ 

to keep a lull quiver, although he has beeu 
much lu requisition of Inl 


Barbara E Fox t 

High School. ' Another 
rces the marriage of Miss 
Mr. August Fischer, at 
no Nov. V2. The Jour- 

Sharp at tbe resideDce of tbe bride's parents ii 

•tily congratulate: 

. H. L. "mnslowoftbcWatertown.S. 
'rently awarded first pre- 


other a diploma of excellence'. 

at (loldsboro, N- C. 

— Pates Torrey, the well-ki 
and typewriting expert, has taken charge of 

e students a debghtful reception 

— C". H. Sbattuck. principal of the penman- 
ship department of Campbell Uni., Bolton, 

Kan., is getting excellent results from his 
claspes. Bis penmanship Is very pleasing. 

— A vorv flevLTly illustrate<I school pros- 
pect..^ .■■...:. - f-.n,,-!!.,-. ,T.,n,..-tmv„. N. Y.. 

Bllv ("r.|i |;. -■.!. , iiih.i I.I iiruTOvingS of 

prcn.s ^ ^^ - I-; ' I. n, ■,.,,,.,.. (.has por- 

Pori.'i iM,.! M I ■ . : ' I I ■ ■' "ii- A well 

print-. aiJil iiin <'■ '■ ■■ i';i- also been 

rect-ivi d itoui M . i i ti School of 

- ' I < i-ili'nsburg, 

Sburtliand and 
N. Y. 
— Tbe gradiJ 

,. 1-.-- ..f Mr. W. E. 

>vT 5. ' biploaws were awarded to a large 
ivs. This JDStitution was founded in 18M, 
d every year finds an increase of prosperity. 
- R A. Lambert, Prin. of tbe Winona, 
■eports a healthy state of 


that i 

- Kcholfield's C. C. Providence. R. 1., is out 
tha handsome new prospectus. An excel- 
itjy made portrait of Prin. A. O. Scholfleld 

to la>, over Ion 
of cafaloyues r 

liber many notices 



J. II. 

THE Augi 

jgiist number o{ The 
•lorBSAL the prize of a copy 
<if •• Amps' Coinp*^(liuin of 
Froelical and Omfflni4'ntal Pen- 
nmnship " was offered for tie 
l.iirt ornate initini or end piece 
Mibmitted Iwforo October I by 
liny JoCRNAL subscriber not 
more than twenty-five year* of 
oge. The winner of this con- 
tr-vt i. F. (i. Kimman. an accomplished young 
pen urtiiit of Kochwrtor, N. Y. We are not able 
to show io this number the specimens he sub- 
mitted, but they will appear in due season. 
There were a number of competitors for the 
prise, and nome of them pushed the winner 
very closcJy, notably by J. F. Briley, r<amar. 
Mo., and Harold C. Spencer, the resourceful 
young penumu of Schnlfiold's Com. Coll,, 
Providenee, R. I. We expect also to show 
nome of their designs Other iuitials that 
oxhiblt«d a commendable degree of orijfinality 
and skin were from R. L. Dickensheets, Boul- 
der, Colo. These four submitted the best re- 
ceived, but there are a number of other sptci- 
mens that are decerving of commendatory 
mention. They were sent respectively by E. 
A. Dworak, Omaha, Neb.. Com. Coll.; J. V. 
Baker, Newark. N. J.: W. E. Ralls, Uli<a,0., 
and Lincoln J. Pollak, New York. The atten- 
tion of our friends who are interested io this 
lino of work is particularly drawn to Mr. 
Zaner's contribution io this issue— the first of a 
series. In tbi4 will be found a plan of compe- 
lltiou which we expect to bear good fruits. 

— Apart from ihe prize contest we have re- 
ceived two handsome ornate initials from 
P. W. Costello, Scrantou. Pa., and a clever 
ntal bit from Fred. L. Vamey, 

custodian of the Hcrapbook has a fine exhibit 
this mouth. Three or four particularly clever 
dosigu'^ iiif U-'>\ii 1!. L Dickeii-;het-I\, iiu'U- 

— That cxceplionully bright voung penn 

- W- 


mens from E. L. Wiley, Mountain City 1 
Chattanooga. Tenn., a writer of mucli force 
and delicacy. 

— Two letters, conspicuous even in a " pen- 
manship »hop" Ity reason of their gracefulness, 
arc signed respectively by T. (1. Little, Con- 
cord Church, w. Va., and E. C. Savignnc, 
Montreal, Can. 

— F. M. Sisson, another of the accomplished 
*' juniors," sends a cleverly made ornate 

, by Frank A. Jenue, Grand Rapids, 


Naulnhka. a Tale of East nn'l W<->t. ' It 1>e- 
){ins in Colorado, where the two mam charao 
* slive. but ^ves signs of drifting quickly to 


1 will be mainly devel- 

oped a:: only Kipling i 

— St. yicholax for November is a very beau- 
tiful isue. replete with interest for young peo 
plo in text and pictm'e. It is easily at the 
ucod of the world s young folks' periodical'*, 

— Business f'rfucflfton, Moline.IU., madeits 
ap)>eamure early in October. The October 
numtier is the first we have seen. It is in 
magazine foim, S3 pages, "i^ x 10. exclusiveof 
advertising pages. Toe printing and mecbaQ- 

(ligniHed. Those wh't looked for a cnnnected 
and extended report of the late B. E. A. meet- 
ing were disanpoioted. as nothing of the kind 
occurs. We nave not. however, seen the No- 
voriibtT issue. The periodical, on the wbolf. 
makes a favorable imprrssion, and it will 
doubtless improve when nil the wheels get to 
running smoothly. The cover is a good piece 
of work bv O. W. Wallace, after the style 
made popular bj Halm. 

and effective piece of work by ( 

O. W. Wallace. Editor Palmerof the F^nmnn, 
too. is a very alert man. and has his eye* wide 
open for good things in the penmanship line. 
He is publishing a paper that is a creilit to the 
profession. Some small souls imagine that tie- 
cau!« people are in the sime business they 
have only ill will and jealousy for their com- 
petitors. Not so with The Jol-rnal. Our 
plan of campaign i-* t» f;ive the profession the 
vei-j- bi-i II, ii A, i-ii. , hiiw— that wecan do 

ormHki 'I i-l, (o make a paper 

that "ill I I i tliem. That is no 

reason ^^ I i ; i n ii take other papers 

a.t good as the HVn^p-h I'lnman we oie glad 
to have our subscribei-s get it regularly. Both 

1 their freedom 


I of words in their proper t 
' ' ell from tt 

The careful selection of the words for the 
reading and writing excrcit«s. taking only 
those which come under the principles of the 
respective lesson, or a preceding one. so that 
the pupil writes these words exactly as he will 
always write them. 

The grouping under the head of " Reporting 
Expedients" those special devices for snorten- 

graphic outline instead of the 

The work contains a number of specimen 
letters in shorthand script, typewriter print, 
etc., and is supplemented by an important 

Ben Ada til ni., M^ ^ht jti i-cooniing in 

the Book -I r i:; - -l r- ■ v\hu - love their 
fellow nil II I i I r "lit pages of that 

volume tun I 1,1,1 .1 i..| the registering 

ofthose^l.M |,i. ,i,i, I fiitfrtaiomentof 

their fellows. A new lii.nk whose title is the 
caption of this paragraph leads us to this re- 

Journal IPustrated Advertisements —No. I. 

'i^^^€^^^^ a^^'l'^^^^^^^ 

Drawn for The Jodrnai, by A, C. Wehh. 

Y TODca.— Here is a volume 
thai seems to us to have a distinct mission, and 
we believe that all schools where typewriting 
is t«uj-bt "111 be mterested init. Thetitletells 


SHonTHANO Simplified,— This is the sug- 
gestive name of a neat volume fresh from the 
prea of the Bryant & Stratton Pub. Co.. 4.51 
Main street. Buffalo. N. Y. The author is 
Ueorge W. Davis, and the task he bos set him- 
self is to present a simplified and somewhat 
modified Pitmanic system, rather than to make 
n uew system of his own. How well be has 
succeeded can only be shown by the actual 
test, but the work has many evidences of care- 
ful study and logical arrangement, aud Ihe 

for the work ar> 

The division of the subji 
reading and writing 

flection from the wealth of 
ings contained between its 
books aplenty that t«ach 

I ' ■ I iinlmakeeffective 

"'' 1 !■■.[- th. . ■!-. - viv .-liffcreut. "One 

Uiiiniu-ii Imiui liiiiiji.-.-. IS ui the latter sort. 
and what it dcxAii't ttll of entertaininc the 
family circle, sociables, parties, etc.. is per- 
haps not worth knowing. The Ford Pub. Co., 
Albany. New York, will send you a copy of 

It plates 
th of plat- 

out of money, when they 
expe' ience. always ht 
have a little to spend. 

always have money jntoe house an 

' tospend. too? Any one can set cii 

by addressing H. F. Deloo & Co,, Colura 

bus. Ohm. K .1 

The Journars Premium Offers. 
As the holiday season grows near we 
are all thinking more or less of appropri- 
ate fjifts for our friends. What kind shall 
we ^ve i A bauble, a toy, or something 

u-eful ? It depends on the kind of per- 
son the giver is. 

Could you do better than to present 
your friend with a year's siibscriptioa to 
Tna JorRNAL. It is a Christmas gilt 
that win last through the year. It is one 
that will be a source of instniction, of 
profit as well as of pleasure. Start by 
giving yourself this present and then re- 
member jour friends. Money invested in 
that which improves hcl|>s to make the 
man; money exchanged for the frivolous 
or hurtful is woise than thrown awny. 

The Jaurnnfg Spfri-I ftanilm-a 

Those who are interested in good liter- 
ature, especially in the line of ticlion, 
should turn to pgne 1.^3 of lust month's 
lOct.) Journal for a list of obout Tao 
Hundred Jitastf^rpieces of Literature by 
ataudard and world celebrated authors. 
We offer to send xwEKTY-rivE separate 
works (your selection), post-paid, as a 
gift, to any one who will send a single 
new subscriber at $1, including regular 
premium. Or we will renew your sub. 
or extend your time one year aud send 
TWENTY FIVE of these books for only 
11.25. For $2 we will renew or extend 
your sub., also enter new sub (with pre- 
mium) and send fiftt of the books to 
any address you wish. Here is a chance 
of a life-time to get a library of standard 
works. For titles of works at-d names of 
authors, see list on page ir»3, Oct. Jouu- 
nai.. Head what they say : 

Prof. Ambs.— The batch of prcmitim litera- 
ture you furnish for securing one new sub- 
scriber to Thk Jocrnal is received. 

It could I 

11 )d 


I. W^. PATTON. Prlr 




ffUlied hy A Iori7 I"*'*' •• 

l.irKINGEB, Priokett College. Pblla- 

The Penmas's Art Journal is a valu- 
able paper, especially for young people. 
The writing lessons given in its columns 
«re worth ten times the cost of a year's 
subscription, without the consideration of 
other valuable contents. The paper should 
be in every family where education is 
appreciated. — Sacramento, C'u!., Collrgc 

Tne best plan in for warding letters lo ad- 
vertistra who ute nom df plumes is to enclose 
such replies in seated envelope and in turn 
enclose this envelope in another addressed 
to The Journal. Catalogues, newspapers, 
photos, etc., will not be fowarded unless post- 
age for same is sent. When writing for 
infoitnation send stamp. 


^x PKRien 



CDCes need apply. Good salary. Adtlii 
WtatiOB lull pnrticulars) "ECLECTIC," ta 

BiJNiivESS op: 


<i'rBD< AN eni<:huetiv itian 

. L'ityof 25.001). ____ 
niercinl teacher desired, Non 
ply. Address "liNLlKGETIC I 
MAN'S Art Journal. 

The Journal Employment 


tiiiber 5, we have less than 
iii-m registered, and have 
inntjer of others. Here are 

ormal PeDmaashin Depart- 
blished business college In a 

nmansbjp and commercial 
• t the largest cities in the 

tittmnship and commercial 
'•i\atf bus'uesscolleBes of the 

li'n-thnnd. see advertisement 

' ^ '■-■ I'l penmanehip, ina 

' ' iind lomraercial 





tor a moderate salary fltst year-; 

■ or penmanship In public schoots- 

Kriifbt young pen man, salary SstO— Ohio 


eplng and jien- 

Teacher i 

'■ft^'Jh: ' 

Wo lid 

1 branches and steoog- 
.Qship and bookkeeping— 

■oiirj. t.H 
jalllyinu th.'HiMi 

Pbnman'8 Art Jouun, 

i Broadway, New Vo 



6all'";iS'".,"'i,f ^°".'' '"!'""5°'' "" tlic subject. 

Aj.iliB-.'c'! v. cahhartV '"'' "'""'" 
420 Clinton Ave., ^Albany, N.Y. 


ing the keys. 


After two years trial this system has 
proven so successful that it is deemed 
advisable for the good ol the thousands of 
typewriter operators to place it before the 
Business Schools are Adopling this Method. 

It is easier than piano playing. By its 
iperation of the keys 


Vo cjnplicated fingering employed. 
It is easy, simple and speedy. 

pectedly large sales. 

A copy will be sent to any address on 
receipt of retail price $i 25. Proper dis 
count to Business and Shorthand Schools 
adopling it. 


Chi ds' Bi;siness College, 

SprinsHrld, ITIbnh. 




Pitman systems in a olear and systematic man- 
ner; teaches " Eteporteri* Kulo of Position " 
Irom beg'inning, and discardti all that which 
bcof aetuil u^c tu the stenotfrapher 



Retail Price, - - - $1.80. 
Sample Cdpy to Teachers, - 1.00. 

Tbe Bryant and Stratton Publishing Co., 



persons havii 
tnoivledce o: 


nughly =.5 at 

shotl.hand l^ 

writer can. All thai s"i;!,''i'i.'.ii'. 

is needed is to foil-.w I O.OOO 


pert bu?AL'ri>.''i''^"''i'i'i'.iil'.''A'LLn,Ml'V,;,V 




Then ^llb•.^rlhc for 


sot. per yc^r. S:imp!e cupy 4c. .Address 

THE ACCOUNTANT, Des Moines, Iowa. 

E. D. m:a.tthews>. 

Lock Qox 336. Cedar Riptds. Iowa. 





Every subscriber for The .Iournai. ut the 
prioe of one dollar is entitled to choice of the 
roUowlnir valuuble premiums fi-ee : 

Works of Instruction in Penmanship. 

Aniffi' Guide to Noll-liiMlrurlloii In 
Prurtli-al and ArllHile PenmaDnlilp^ 

large s 

This Is the 

32); FlourUhc 

~- iireotProe- 

rial (£2 X nv. 

Eiilnsy (S4 x30)j^inarrlaee €er 

Instead of iii in 1 ■ ; -. 1.. 

pen deelirus, hHiiilsomch n 
raphy and suitable tor 1 
mailed securely packed In 

The Lord's Prayer 
Flonrlwhed Eaffle (24 : 
Stair (:^4 X 3^1: Centennial PIrt 

krll«\ld memorial (19 x 24); Ci 

Family ^ecord'oiH x ^T- 

Special Premiums for Clubs. 

To stimulate those who interest themselves in 
gettinjr subscriptions for Tbe Journal, we 

Ames' Compendium of Practical and 
Artistic PcnmanHhlp. 

When you And a professional pen worker who 
is doinjf anything at the business, you locate a 
copy of Ame-' t'ompPDdiuni. Itlathe acknowl- 
edged standard of the engrosser, pen letter and 
ornnmentnl pen worker genernlly. and is cheap 

Ames* Book of Flourishes. 

This is our latest and quickest sellingpenman- 
shlp publication. It contains 125 specimens by 
sixty-two of the world's lending penmen. 

Price in cloth binding with gold side stamp 
is Sl-fiO; heavy manilla hindink;. SI Will ^end 
the bnok in cloth for flvr ni'w shIk r iwi,.,,,- 


( 12). We 
111 and GO 

Lessons in Busm 

. .1 of " llw 
-till Mich. 


Some books are so well written and prove so valuable to their 
owners that thieves steal their contents, and by misarrangement 
of them, make books which they try to palm oflf as superior to 
ihe originals. 

Graham's Hand-Book of Standard Phonography 

has been pirated from, to a greater extent, probably, than any 
book ever published in the United States. 

^V7" H "ST ? 

Because it is the best text-book un the subject ever published, as 
is proved by the fact that it rendered obsolete all phonographic 
books ])receding it, all of which are now out of print, and by the 
fact that the best portions of all phonographic books published 
since have been stolen from it. 

What evidence is (here that it is a .st.andard work ? 

It has been published 33 years without change because none 
has been found necessary. 

It has been used for years in many of the best institutions of 
ihe country, and the system it teaches is used by the best report 
ers in the world. 

These are facts which can be proved. 

Send for a free copy of Ai.i, Akout Phonogrm'hv, the 
largest and handsomest short hand circular ever published. 


Author and Publisher, 

744 Broadway, New York. 

Graham's School of Shorthand and Typewriting 

744 Broadway, New York. 


S H O rL T H^ISr ID. 

already smdylnj 

HSSS ^~"''™ 

Do NOT spoml a lifetime ir, buimn^- ihr ,>l.| 

Ons Hundred Valuable Suggeitloni to Shorthand 

15l)wo«^«^l-l;mVm'Ire^^^^^^ I'i '.'mt'iVi'i'''. iTi.N ' 


HecomDiemlert"l)y'*ioii te^l1?M. 

complctc."'s2.6o*: Pfl'rt'^I. Ml'^tentt.' I.ess.M)"'bj- 
MAIL oratlNSTITUTR. Trial lesson FREE. 
Book sent to colleges for examiaation Write. 

H. M. PERNIN, ^t-tf 


want u teacher A 
want to teach | 
Finployraent (Uiionii rnn help 

Detroit, - - - l^ioh. 

PACK NII.-nBGRS of The JocRNAL con- 
X>_ tainiiiu: Blre. Packard's Complete Lessons 
In Munsoii Shorthand for sale. Price $1.75 per 
set, with binder. 

Best Work on Shorthand Ever Written. 


The author of this work is Prof. Alfred Day, a shorthand 
reporter of 25 years' experience, author of "Aid to Graham," 
•■ Shorthand Copy-Book," &c., President of the Cleveland Sten- 
ographers' Association, Principal and Proprietor of Day's School 
of Shorthand. 

It does not pretend to be a new system. It presents Graham's 
System in a wonderfully simplified form, doing away entirely with 
the objections that have been made to that system by reason of 
its interminalilc com])lications. Prof. Day has removed these 
stumbling blocks, making the path of the student entirely plain. 

The results obtained by this work are unequaled in the history 
of shorthand teachers. 1 he publishers will be glad to give scores 
of testimonials from those who have acquired proficiency in a re- 
markably short time with no other teacher than " Day's Complete 
Shorthand Manual." 

The book, beautifully printed and bound in cloth, will be sent 
by mail post-paid u, a^^ .ul.i.rss on receipt of the price, $1.50 



THE BURROWS BROTHERS CO., Publishers, ,.^ 
J3 to 27 Euclid Avenue, . Cleveland, Ohio. 

The Remino:ton Standard 

I, aided by capital and the 
spciicncc gained during 
the Kektekn Ye\rs in 
which it has been 


Ili!ustratbd Catalogue. 

IVyckoff, Seamans & Benedict, 

,^27 Broadway, New Vortv. 



And Take Good Positions as 

If vou can write Shorthand and do not have 
w position or are not sat'sficd with the one you 

We can locate yon as soon as )ou arc com- 
petent, but we want to hww of our own 
knoxotedge what you can do. 

We want young men and yonng ladies to 
learn Shorthand of us t>y mail, qt />ersonallv. 
We secure good positions for all pupils when 
competent. Come twjo or commence now. 

W". 0-. CHAFFEE, 

I'eaiJfc?! WarehoLise, 

Nos. 1 5 & 1 7 Beekman St., 


Edited hy Fram-is H. HemperUy. 

Auihiir of ■■ \ii:l1ucI(.i1 Svll.iliic Sliorlliniicl," and 

PriiSidem "\yW rhJLi.iLJpliia Slcnogra- 

The Typewriting Deportment is conducted by 
Bates Torrey, amiior of " Practical Type- 

The Stenoe^rapher Pub. Co., 


10 liny I* tlie H'l'A M>A It !>. 

PART from its immense prac- 
Ileal value," says the Cyclof^adia 
0/ Education, "SbortliaiKl 
has a high educative worth jvhich 
should commend it to ail good 
teachers. The first point which 
a Principal, thinking of intro- 
ducing Shorthand into his school, 
has to decide is, the system to he 
adopted, and no hesitation need lie 
felt in recommending Isanc 

PUmau's Phouography 

because it i t easy to write, easy to 
read and easy to learn. ' 

The Capital City Commercial College 
The Capital City School of Shorthand, 



The Eook-Keeper, 

Inttre&ts of CflRce-Mtn. 
50 Cents a Year. 




jlwcriber wntos; "Each number of Tbi 
.Kreper Is worth many times the cost ol 
r'8 subs«:ription lo me. Would not bf 

American System of Shorthand. 

To supply 

asing demand for 
of shorthand and 
type-writing hav been established in var- 
ious parts of the country, and, with few 
exLcplions. all business colleges now hav 
a " department of shorthand." A number 
of systems ar taught, but that of Benn 
Pitman ia more generally ueed than any other 
in this country, and may be calif d the "Amer- 
ican Sy^Um/'—Z^^fraa from the Reforl of 
the Commisuuiur of EdHCiliou {Washington, 
A C), for the K^-^/- 18&7-88. /o,"C 927. 




National slenographer, 

K'menl'B Suggestions and Keporting >oit8..s«c. 
kmcnt'B Method of Lfcornlng Word Signs.. ..50c 
AdrtreM ISAAC 8. DEMENT, 116 I 

t for t. 

A thousand years as a d; 
meiic teaches it. A short, sit 
method by E. C. ATKINSON 
Sacremento Business College 
Cal. Bf mail, 30 cents. Addi 


Lonn Auacintioii ruMM SBTd.OUU), doubts In 

MTion bank Pamplilet, nith biicbegt rerereat?u. fiM. 
H.F. REWMLL. Maiiatr.533 DriMl ailldlig.Phlli.Pa. 


and I.ETTER-WRITIXG, published 
Spexcer. FtLTON * Lo MIS, Cleveland, 
is acknowledged lo be [he best wor 
print for commercial schools. It you h 

Specimen pages fn 

;. (or ! 


i abo 

The above cut is photo-er\Qiaved from a pen drawivg [ajter a pjittt) by S. D. Holt, the tntented young penman mhosf ivortt has been 
shown several lintes in these colvmns. Mr. Holt is a Xanerian graduate and at present is pennian of Darling^s Bnsiniss College, 
Rochssler, Minn. 


Your name on 15 cards, various 
combinations, 25 cts. 

A set of Combination Capitals for the 
small sum of 25 cts. 

A set of Business Capitals, neat and 
trim, 25 cts. 

System of exercises for develop- 
ing Muscular Movement, 25 cts. 

Written Compendium embracing 15 
lessons and all movement exer- 
cises, fresh from the pen,$i 00. 

Any of the above are well worth 
your money. Send stamps, money 
orders or postal notes. Address, 

Box 63. Station W, 




Adapted for use- with or without Text-Book, 

aod the only set recommended to 



Bryant & Stratton 




Favorable arrangonienta made with Business 
ColIeKes and Public and IMvale Schoola for Intro- 
doction and use. Descrlptivo List now ready 
Correspondence invited. 

Tue beat Pen In the U.S.. and best penmen use them. 


Thlfl Pen, known by the above title, Is manufac- 

tared of the best steel, and carefully aele-'ted. They 

icularly adapted for Publlo and Private 

and Bookkeeper's use. Put up In Boxes 

containing 36 Pens. Sent Post-paid, on receipt uf 


Il9i 121 William St., N. Y. 



No. 188. 

Expressly adapted for professional use and orna- 
mental pfnmaiishlp. 



All of Standard and Superior Quality. 





Bl M ^\ YourJoCRNAU, Our New 
I PI L/ dy QindL-r, sIronK and at 
ivf, holds two ycHrs' pai)ers haodiiy and 




6 written In full, and 


stamp, and I will send fou add . 

hand, price list descriptlye of Lessons by Mail, Ex- 
tended Hovemeats, Traolnff Exercises, CaDitals. 
Cards, Flourishing, eto. AiWress, 

» c X- A. E. PAKSONti, Creston, Iowa, 

r. h.-^o postal canls need apply. 3-lS 



Execulflt til Kind, or Ornamental Pen-Work 
To Order. 
Our Enjrroi 
t^IourisUin^ h 


J?™." '!f"f."'°B.'>' OrnamcDMI Pen-nork. Reeolu- 
tioiis, Tratimonials. «c., executed In a flrsl-clara 
Sid Pm nrlt'"" P;«»".»' FlourisblnB, Lettering 
?!!™ J '""l'*i°"'' "■ "■« ""' possible mauiB " 
Correspoiidenee solicited and sotlefnction gunran 

■2-12 A. E. DEWHURST, Utioa, N. Y. 


lesaooHai-earranged especially for tliose wlio 
mnv wteh to acquire a fine handwriting a 

d the highest commenda- 

i without leaving home: 


iMid will be ot great value to those who 
write a slow cramped stylo ; It la easy, rapid 
ho no''"™'"'.' ^ """ leaaoas will graatlJ 

.■^.DBle lessons, iio cents. IS lessons. %.•,. Cap 
itai.s per set. l.i cents. 2 sets. dlSereat, £-. 
cents, lour letter criticised, corrected an.' 
r«turn'd. 25 cents. Specimen letter. 25 cent 


Horthern Illinois College of Pen A' 

with Normal School and Business College, 



GOLD MEDAL, Paris exposition, 1889. 



Do You Advertise? 

We CHQ supply : 
purposes for less i 
them I'Dgruved foi 

- all advertising 
II owned the pen 


aj2 DroHdway. ; 

COLLECTION OP 100 valuable recipes 
'- for the manufacture of vaiious kinds of Inks 

W. SWIFT, Apulia, I 

lupa or postal note) by WELLS 


-^commercial: publications^- 


NEW COMPLETE BOOKKEEPING. 275 Pages, Retail Price, $2.50, 

NEW BOOKKEEPING. 250 Pages, Retail Price, $2,00, 
NEW INTRODUCTIVE BOOKKEEPING. 125 Pages, Retail Price, $ 1 ,25, 
FIRST LESSONS IN BOOKKEEPING. 75 Pages, Retail Price, 75c, 

Fm rninii mill ln-trlft A Little Bcaiilu. 

COMMERCIAL LAW. 310 Pages Retail Price, $2,00, 

BUSINESS LAW (* ?o.".?/.r). 200 Pages. Retail Price, $1,25, 

COMMERCIAL ARITHMETIC. 275 Pages, Retail Price, $2,00. 

BUSINESS ARITHMETIC. 225 Pages, Retail Price, $1,25. 

For Comuicrclnl Sclioola and Commercial Departmpiita. Olvc» Excellent Satl*faction, 

CIVIL GOVERNMENT. 235 Pages. Retail Price, $1,50. 

Retail Price, 75c, 

SEVENTT LESSONS IN SPELLING. 130 Pages, Retail Price, 30c 

PEN-WRIHEN COPIES (REPRODUCED). 255 Copies and Instruc- 
tions, Retail Price, $1.00. 

A PlicnomenQlly Po|iiilnr Work. Th,- It-:M A(.l hi Tmchiuu irri((;t(; n-rr ruhixlic-l 

THREE WEEKS IN BUSINESS PRACTICE. Method ^<>' Outfit, $35.00, 


rUr „iiluftm-itx» fill >•••!< -,i r'.F.-rW f,)r IiJwtratiii{i Bwiufw. It affiiutx Jmt tin- 'Iri'l that in 

n(M -Mti )/ fr. ni f/i- luijiil in the hatt ixifKittlr u-ay foniylfc vorH. 

ttiM, ej^rfptlny the ItUHineni Practipi; irlU 
with a vew to iutrotlurtton, at one-hatf 
ne0» Practlee will l,e iHnitfft to any H.tslf 

We also carry a line of Diplomas for both Commercial and Shorthand Departments, which may be 

adapted to any school; also Blank Books and Business Forms for Bookkeeping, Stationery. 

College Currency, &c , &c. Correspondence Solicited. 

WILLIAMS & ROGERS, Educational Publishers, Rochester, N. Y. 

t3r's oofies. 

• tfiiiiiillti itTiltcri cnpic", fresh from the pen. on heavy, iiuruled paper, 
iiuiuiii BiK*;, mere oeintr flrtceii sheets packed In ti suhstaQtial case and sent for a 50 cent 
postal uot*, oi- oue cent postage stumi>i) Address 

W. H. PATRICK. 61-3 N. Fulton Ave., Baltimore. Md. 

Wc are now prepared to rule and bind Blank 
Books in any style and size that may be desired, 
with or without printed headings. 

We have in stock a superior grade of school cur- 
rency, and every variety of Business Stationery 
used in Business College Work. 

Wc can furnish currency and stationery with the 
imprint and address of any college; or we can print, 
ay special blank forms that may be desired. Write 


Putillshing Company, 

on short notice, ; 

us for-samples and prices. 


: school! u»c Ihe 

its splendid and 
of the circulation 

ll was 77/.- EJucatiotittl Cour 
cally called the especial alter 
the good record made by ihi 

of Louisville, Ky.. which s6« 
1 of Teachers and educatori- 
merican Journal of f.ducatio, 


The Courant, in speaking of ihed 
of this journal among the people, said : 

" A year or two ago the Editor of the American Journal of Education, St. Lou 
urged that a liberal distribution of that paper among th' " 


ght the 

uld I 

lendent of Public Instruc 
at%ic)ti'2 Of course, it w 

school offici 
her four told its cost in one year. The teach- 
cly and zealously aided until one hundred and fifly thotisand 
ion. At the close of the year the Report of the Superin- 
m for Missouri showe.l an at>erage ineiease of ttaehers' wa^es 
i not claimed that all this was due to \.)\^ Journal, but that 
ipt factor in securing the desired result no intelligent 

) Pine St.. Si Louis, Mo., for sub- 


K you want the beU School Desks, the best " Aids to School Discipline." Slated Paper 
or any other style of Black Boards, or any other "Tools to v\ ork With " in the school- 
room, such as Maps. Globes Chans or Black Hoards, the best thing to do is to write 
ihc J. B Merwin School Supply Co , St. Louis. Mo , for Special Introdtulory Prices on 
ihese articles. This firm furnishes the best goods at the lowest prices, and will take 
pleasure in :inswerink' all inquiries. Address the Stt 


LcadiDi; exi-lusi 
■uperior penmen giv 
.only $3-50 per week 
Druwing, Portraiture aad Theory. Fii 
Diplomtis dcsi>>ned and cuts furnished, 
five red stam]>s or a dime. 

College of Penmanship and Art in America. The plare to become a Penman, Artist and Teacher. ( 1 

attention to the school and work. Six hours instruction daily. Tuition reasonable. Good board and furni-hed 
"More applications for graduatts than we can fill. Alt-round course of instruction embracing nice styles of Penranship, : 
Penman's supplies obtainable. Lessons by mail. Job work of every description d'-ne in a superior ri 
ftgnificently illuatrated catalogue, showing work of graduates, with portrait of faculty, signatures, etc., 




Vol. 15. No. 12. 

Tired of Bad "Copy." 

Editor lipoFKe W. ClilMs RcixIh Ilts Sinfl 
iLud Olhern a Lecture. 

READ this, boys, from one of the best- 
known editors and publishers, and 
one of the most successful men of affairs in 
America— George W. Childs of the Phila- 
delphia Ledger: 

Because you write a bad hand do not 
therefore mistake yourself for a genius, 
and do uot fancy that bad penmanship 
is a sure sign of genius." This was 
written once by a seasoned editor 
to a slapdash correspondent, whose 
easy writing made very bad reading 
to editors, printers and proofreaders, 
and who undertook to justify his 
scrawls by quoting in evidence the 
very bad hand that Horace Greeley 
wrote. True it is that Greeley's 
penmanship was atiociously bad — so 
was Reverdy Johnson's. But the 
world tolerated the almost illegible 
chirography of these eminent worfh- 
ies, Editor Greeley and Lawyer and 
Statesman Johnson, because they 
were unable to do that kind of work 
any better — not because of genius — 
and we have the evidence of Mark 
Twain in his " Innocents Abroad" 
that Christopher Columbus could 
not pen as good-looking a letter as 
any ordinary scholar in an American 
primary school. Their penmanship, 
however, was bad, not because they 
■were geniuses, but because they 
couldn't help it. Bad handwriting 
is not an unerring sign of ingenuity 
of any kind, and, contrariwise, the 
fact of being a genius does not neces- 
sarily involve handwriting so hard 
that it nearly sets editor and printer 
crazy to decipher it, so hard that it 
would provoke these patient and 
long-suffering public servants into 
the use of language that would be 
much more pointed than polished if 
they ever gave way to such profane 

No person but one who cannot 
write a legible hand is at all excus- 
able for sending to another hand- 
writing that is difficult to read. 
Whenever such writing is sent by 
man or woman who is able to do better, 
the sending of it is in the nature of an 
affront to the recipient except in the in- 
stance where the scrawl is caused by lack 
of time. It is, first of all, an Intimation 
that the writer has no consideration for 
either the loss of time to which he 

aw ling and 

her discom- 

that (his 

good enough 

', the sending 

the way 

puts the receiver of the 

scrambling letter, or to hi: 

fort. It is a general 

writing, shabby as it is, " 

for you." In the next pli 

of such a letter puts diftic 

of the writer's own purpose, whatever ii 

may be. If the letter goes to a busy person, 

almost continuously occupied with 

urgent affairs, it is almost certain 

to encounter delay. It is at once 
laid aside to wait a more con- 
venient opportunity for plodding 
through its hard hieroglyphs, or 
it is put away in a pigeon hole or 
drawer for the leisure hour that 
may be a week or a month in com- 
ing. Once off the track such a let- 
ter is not only, delayed, but the 

object of the writer may be totally defeated. 
The purpose of a letter, or of any written 
communication, is to convey information, 
to make something known, or to explain 
something to the recipient of the written 
paper, and therefore the writer should en- 
deavor to write in a way that will plainly 
effectuate that purpose, and especially not 
in a way that may hinder or possibly de- 
feat it. When you next sit down to write 
remember this. 

Habitually bad penmanship is rarely 

Western Penmen's Convention. 

The Wbstern Penmen's Convention 
will be in session at Louisville the last 
three days of this month. We are informed 
that the indications are favorable to a 
large attendance and trust that this fact 
will be fully realized. The editor of The 
JouRNAi- will be present if his business 
engagements permit. This Association 
has done much good and is capable of ex 
erting a still wider influence. 

We feel a little disappointed at not be- 
ing able to place before The Journal 
readers in this issue the full programme of 

Envelopes and Postal Charges. 

Photo-Engraved from Pen Copy Made in The Joornal i 

welcomed in a newspaper office, and nine- 
teen times out of twenty is most unwel ■ 
come. We are speaking now of that de- 
scription of bad penmanship that is diffl 
cidt to read because of carelessness in the 
"scribbling" writer, or because of too 
much "flourish "by the ornamental com- 
mercial college graduate. The plain hand 
Qf the ordinary unprofessional penman is 
always preferable and rarely fails to get 
prompt consideration. 

First Boy (to second boy, who bas been fish- 
ing) : " Catch any thing i" 

Second Boj/ : "I haven't been home yet," — 
Brooklyn Life. 

the meeting. Five or sis weeks ago the- 
chairman of the Executive Committee wrote 
us to say that the programme had been 
formulated and directed us to apply for a 
copy of it to Mr. G. W. Wallace, a mem- 
ber of the committee. We made such ap- 
plication and Mr, Wallace wrote that he 
had received the report and would for- 
ward it in a day or two. That is more 
than a month ago and is the last we have 
heard of the matter. We had still hoped 
to be able to print the programme, as we 
have no doubt it is or will be printed in 
T?ic Western Penman for November, but 
at this writing that number has not been 
received. The Journal is a warm friend 
of The Western Penman's Association and 
always ready to contribute what it can to 
the prosperity of that organization. 

The Populn 

I Old. 

THE institution of payment for the car- 
riage of letters and envelopes dates, 
so far as cau be gathered, from the reign 
of Louis XIV — says a French writer — 
when a certain Sicur de Valfyer instituted 
a service of private post, with the Royal 
consent. He placed boxes at the corners 
of streets for the reception of the letters. 
These letters were inclosed in en- 
velopes bought at special offices 
therefor. In 1653 M. de Valfyer had 
also "note forms, "or " formules de 
billets,' for the dispatch of ordinary 
business communications for the in- 
habitants of the larger towns. One 
of these billets has been preserved 

Pfiiisson, the friend of Mme, de 
SCvignfi, amused himself with this 
kind of correspondence. He once 
tilled the blank portion of a billet 
with a letter addressed to Mile, de 
Scudfiry, in which he called her 
"Sapho," signing himself in the 
fashion of the time " Piaandre. ' 

This is the note which has been 
preserved, and it is probably the 
oldest existing example of a franked 

Another model is represented by a 
letter in an envelope written by 
Louis 5IV himself, to a son he had 
by Moie. de Montespan, the Count 
of Toulouse, Admiral of the Fleet 
during the siege of Barcelona. The 
letter is dated Versailles, April 20, 
1700, written, sealed, and addressed 
by the King's own hand. 

While the use of envelopes in 
France had become common, they 
were not used in England at all 
except for official ( 

Among the archives for the Brit- 
ish Empire there is a letter addressed 
May 16, 1696, to the Secretary of 
State, the Right Honorable Sir Wil- 
liam Trumball, by Sir James Ogil- 
vie. This letter is 4^ inches long 
by 3 inches broad, and almost the 
same as ourmodern envelopes. There 
is also preserved among the papers of an 
ancient Yorkshire family an envelope of 
fine paper, of the same square form, 
which was sent from GGnes in the year 

' Gil Bla 

from a passage of Le Sage's 
' published in 1725, "Aurora 
Gusman took two billets, put them ia 
envelope," etc., that at that epoch they 

ly used envelopes for letters. 
In the Egerton collection of MSS. at the 
British Museum there is an envelope re- 
sembling our present envelopes, which 
contains alelter from Mme. de Pompadour, 
addressed to the Duchesse d'Aiguillon, In 
the year 1760. There is also a letter ad- 
dressed by Frederick the Great to 
an English general in his service. It 
is dated Putsdam. July 28. 1766. 
and has for cover an envelope of 
coarse paper similar to those in use 
in England at the present time. 
The difference between the two ia 
that the one is open at both ends, 
while at the present time they are 
opened at the top. Before the io- 
Iroduction of the Penny Post envel- 
opes were rarely used in England, 
because extra carriage was charged 
for every paper inclosed in aootber. 

c/enma/bd QS^fkt^CLfottznxLL!? 

• Prepared for Business.' 

Edi'tor op The Joubkal: 

The writer of this article was very much 
interested while perusing a recent number 
of your iotercstiDg and valuable paper in 
trying to decipher \hz fntt-nim'tU <yi a sig- 
natuie of one of whom it was said m the 
Journal of FAucation : " This is the signa- 
ture of one of the most prominent men on 
(he National Educational Association pro- 

In the writer's efforle to decipher the 
hieroglyphics referred to. he was forcibly 
reminded of the story told of a college 
filudent who, when urged by hia classmate 
to join a class in penmanship and learn to 
write a " decent hand," replied : " Oh t 
it will never do for me to take lessons in 
writing, for if I should learn to write legi- 
bly every one would see my poor spelling." 

Of course it cannot reasonably be ex- 
pected that every educated man who has, 
perhaps, given but little attention to pen- 
manship, at least who has never made it a 
specialty, should be able to write like Mr. 
Ames or like a score of others whose 
names appear from time to time in The 
Penman's Aut Jouiinal, any more than it 
could reasonably be expected that every 
lawyer should be an artist like Raphael or 
that every doctor should be musician like 
Beethoven ; but in a country like ours, and 
in an age when the occasions for the com- 
munication of ideas by means of writing 
are so multiplied, for a man to claim to be 
thoroughly educated and at the same time 
not to be able to communicate his ideas to 
his fellow beinpsin writing legible enough 
to be easily read is, to say the least, rery 

As to whether penmanship has any 
" educational significance " or not, de- 
pends altogether on what kind of educa- 
tion is meant. In a business education, I 
think, most men who have had some ex- 
])erience in the matter would be willing 
to admit that the handwiitiug has consid- 
erable significance in the counting room. 
If some " prominent" man on the " Edu- 
cational Association programme " thinks 
differently, let him be out of emplojment 
and then try fo get a position in some 
mercantile business where accounts are to 
be kept and writing is to be done, and 
then let him report at his earliest con- 
venience whether or not his handwriting 
had any educational significance. 

To fit young men for business pursuits 
requires a special kind of instruction and 
training which classical colleges do not 
give, and which in nine casts out of ten 
cau bcit be secured in a well equipped 
business college. 

Rusiness men are beginning slowly, but 
surely, to understand and appreciate this 
fact. Classical colleges, preparatory 
schools and high schools are also waking 
up to the fact that they mpst change their 
curriculums so as to make theii courses of 
study more practical, in Vrder to keep 
their pupils from leaving their "classic" 
halls, and "hieing awaj" to some busi- 

Asa result, many of the aforesaid schools 
hasten to open what are known as "Com- 
uuTcial Departments." These departments 
arc, alas, too often " commercial " only in 
name. Occasionally, it is true, a profes- 
sional penman or a practical bookkeeper 
and teacher of the science of accouuts is 
employed, but in the great majority of in- 
stances some "regular teacher," who is 
perfectly innocent of a scientific or practi- 
cal knowUdge of bookkeeping, penman 
ship, business customs or commercial law. 
is employed to do the teaching. In the 
few instances in which a proffssional pen- 
man and teacher of commercial branches 
is employed the classes as a rule are so 
large, and the lime for recitation so lim- 
ittd. that little or no individual instruction 

The writer knows, personally, of stv- 
cral of these " prominent " schools in the 
city of New York, and there are undoubt- 
edly scores of others where they claim to 
"prepare young men for business, " aod 
these schools are devoting /-^rfy minute* 
twice a week to bookkeeping, and in some 
instances thirty or forty minutes once a 
week ! 

A question something like this naturally 
arises in the mind of every thinking man: 
If a young man with a fair English edu- 
cation is none too well prepared for busi- 
ness after devoting from six to eight hours 
a day to hard work for six months or one 
year in a business college, under the tui- 
tion of competent and professional teach- 
ers, how well would he be prepared in one 
of these so-called Commercial Depart- 
ments, where only forty to eighty minutes 
a w(ek are given ? And, secondly, if any 
class of schools is really (intentionally or 
unintentionally) humbugging the people, 
which is it — the business colleges or these 
"prominent '" schools ? 

The facts in the case warrant us in say- 
ing that bookkeeping, penmanship, com- 
mercial law and the ethics of business are 
subjects which require study, thought, 
time and attention in order to master 
them ; and, in the writer's opinion, any 
school where the proprietors are unwilling 
to employ a competent commercial in- 
structor, and allow him sufficient time to 
properly instruct his claeses, should not 
try to deceive the public by claiming to 
" prepare pupils for business." 

An Old Teacher. 

Rescuing Precious Manuscript. 

Many books that are now familiar to us in 
a dozen editions have only been preserved 
in a single manuscript. The parchment 
volumes ot ancient Greek and Latin writ- 
ers were in numberless cases seized upon, 
the original writing erased, and then used 
for the history of some saint, or for copy- 
ing some part of the Rible. 

In the Middle Ages the most valuable 
works of ancient times seem often to have 
been left rotting in old corners of monas- 
teries, where no lover of books would 
have thought of seeking them. Learning 
being then a rare quality, the rarest manu- 
scripts were often destroyed in this and 
other ways, without one thought of their 
priceless value. 

Thus Quintilian was discovered in an 
old coffer, under a pile of rubbish, in a 
mouastery ; a most valuable copy of 
Tacitus was fouud in much the same con- 
dition in Westphalia; and the Code of 
Justinian was accidently found on the 
capture of a Calabrian town by the Pisans. 
Later on, a page from one of the lost por- 
tions of Livy's History was found by a 
learned man, forming the parchment of 
his battledore. He hastened to the maker, 
and found that the last page had been 
used the week before. lu like manner Sir 
Robert Cotton, on going one day to his 
tailor, found the mm just about to cut up 
for measures an original Magna Charta, 
with seals and signatures complete. 
\\ ilhin our own times one of the most 
valuable manuscripts of the Gieek New 
Testament has been rescued from a mon- 
astery on Mount ^irmS.^Amfriam Touth. 

Life is rough : 

Slug smoothly, O Bard, 
Enough, euougb 

To bave/ouiid iife hai'd. 

No record Art kwps 

0( her ti-avail and throes. 
Tliere is toil on Ibe steeps— 

Fastest Living Stenographer. 

Isaac S. Dement of Chicago is without 
question the most rapid reporter in the 
world. At Dayton, Ohio, on August 25, 
before the Ohio Stenographers' Associa- 
tion, he wrote at the astonishing rate of 
815 words in one minute. Think of it I 
It hardly seems credible. The Dayton 
Journal, in commenting on this wonderful 
feat of Mr. Dement's, says: 

"The parlors in the Phillips House were 
filled, and alter some general talk Mr. Is^ac 
S. Dement sat down at a table to give an 
example of fast shorthand writing. Mr. 
Dement has the rrcord for the fastest writ- 
ing in the world. At the Iowa contest 
last month he made the record of 309 words 
in one minute. Mr. Dement is wonder- 
fully expert, and his work is astonishing. 
He practiced a while last evening at the 
dictation of Miss Hannah Lazarus, who 
read from entirely strange matter. Pres- 
ently, after having got his hand in, he 
said : ' let her go. ' Miss Lazarus read with 
great rapidity, but it did not seem to 
worry the writer in the least. Three time- 
keepers were appointed, and at the call of 
time he stopped. The count resulted in 
377 words. 

"The next test resulted in 305. 

" Mr. Dement now told Miss Lazarus to 
read as fast as she could. The words 
came so fast that it was a difficult matter 
to take them by ear, to say nothing of 
writing them down. At the count the re- 
sult showed 315 words. 

" This beats Mr. Dement's official record 
by six words, hut he says that one night 
he took 352 words in a minute. 

"It was iramrnsely entertaining and 
showed what could be doce in the art. 

"Others tried tbeir speed, but none 
approached this expert's work." 

In a letter to the editor, dated Septem- 
ber 2, Mr. Dement says : 

" In a private test in a reporter's office, 
after the convention was over, I reached 
my highest speed so far — 357 words in one 
minute, which I read back accurately, 
Mr. John Collins, one of the official report- 
ers of Dayton, took the same matter with 
me, getting 310 woids, the matter which 
he left out being entirely unimportant. 
Mr. Collins is one of the best reporters in 
the country. The matter I took at the 
test before the association was entirely 
new to me, and my notes were readable." 

The shorthand profession of the world 
has every reason to be proud of Mr. 
Dement, for certainly no reporter has ever 
reached such skill in rapid writing as he 
has. — Franh Harri8on''s Magazine. 

Postal Clerks Weary. 


fool hi 
place i 
in the 


post office clerk went on: "Some 
IS discovered that the most ungainly 
in the world for a postage stamp is 
middle of the back of the envelope, 
the flap is glued down." 

3 a fad 

stamp i 

" Like a porous plaster." 

"Exactly. Oh, don't the stamp clerks 
rage ! They lose hours of time turning 
over letters and hunting for stamps. I'll 
resign if the fool-killer doesn't get to 

" Must be very annoying ? " 

" Well, I should say it is. For heaven's 
sake don't spread this awful fever. I 
suppose next the idiots 'II hide the postage 
stamps under a pile of bricks up in Harlem 
and expect the clerks to go out and dig 
'em \xp:'—Neii^Tork World. 

Wannamaker's Faith in Newspaper 

John Wanamaker says: "I never in 
my life used such a thing as a poster or 
dodger or hand bill. My plan for fifteen 
years has been to buy so much space in a 
newspaper and fill it up with what I 
wanted. I would not give an advertise- 
ment in a newspaper of 500 circulation for 
5000 dodgers or posters. If I wanted to 
sell cheap jewelry or run a gambling 
scheme I might use postTS. but I would 
not insult a decent reading public with 
hand bills. Tha class of people who read 
svich things are poor material to look to 
for support in merchantile affairs. I deal 
diiectly with the publisher. I say to him, 
' How long will you let me run a column 
of matter through your paper for $100 or 
1500 ?' as the case may be. I let him do 
the figuring, and if I think he is uot trying 
to take more than his share I give him the 
copy. I lay aside the profits oil a particu- 
lar line of goods for advertising purposes. 
The first year I laid aside $3000; last year 
11 lid aside and spent $40,000. I havp 
doae better this year, aud shall increase 
that sum as the profits warrant it. I owe 
my success to the newspapers, aud to them 
I will freely give a certain profit of my 
yearly busine-s." 


a.— Texas Sift- 

Georgia has a woman train dispatcher. 
Every small boy knows of a woman switch- 
tender. — WashtnQton Star, 

Call a Chicago girl large-hearted and gener- 
ous, if you cboose, but never refer to her os 
big-soled. — Te:caa Si/tinps. 

Orimley : " What is it occasions that piteous 

a sUibbingits undertow against the rocks." 

" How habits cling to a man," said Mr. Sniff. 
" I hired au old ex-barber to trim my lawn tho 
other day, and he asked me if I would have it 
shampooed also." — Singlmmion Hi-jmblican. 

At the Seashore.— C/ta?«b(?)-mai 'I (to 
saleslady excursionist) : " Have you any 
towels ?"" 

Saleslady (absent miudedly) : " Turn to the 
right, third aisle down, left-hand counter. 
C-a-a-s-h !" 

"The Dutch make their dogs 

suppose V—Busti>>i liinrlh'r. 

"Where does tin iilirivi- * ll<> i-n't jji it ' 

to the best autho'-ifi. - ii i- .ii ■ ('.i t<. N.i.-ili, 
who used the reoiiK k ilrt i-.i\ i-i\ in vu-n-iu^ ii> 
some profnue pei-sim uhu l<&d iriLKiwil the 
building of the Ark. 

"There are times," said the professi'iual 
thiukei of thjughtb whtn man is made to 
realize hn, lumtatiou!, oud is filled with uttei 

Yes replied Jungpoppe thats juet the 
ly I felt when my bar y wanted me to give 
n the mm -f 7 n, xpnh-. Inumal 

theoth r 1 ! H I tl\ \ u ught t< 

Yo I wcul 1 1 u n tr ul 1 getting i 

Important Notice to Journal Subscribers. 

Look over the annual index on another 
page. It will pay you to read it through. 
If you want any back number in order to 
preserve particular articles for your scrap- 
book or for other purpose, order without 
delay. We have not many back numbera 
on hand. Price, 10 cents each; 25 cents 
for three. 

This number also contains our Annual 
Premium Announcements, and should be 
preserved for refennce. It will cost you 
10 cents to get another. 

We can change your address as ofteo as 
you like, but you should notify us three 
weeks or so in advance of the change, or, 
if you can't do this, make arrangements to 
have your paper for that month for- 
warded. We cannot remail papers when 
we have not had timely notice of the 
change. You cannot reasonably expect 
us to pay for your own negligence. 

'\ye/unans QS^fkCCUvtunxL^ 

Initials and End Pieces. 

I NITIAL making, like many 
oth«r departments of 
illustratioD, is a pro- 
fesiion Iq itself. 

The purpose of an 
initial may be two- 
fold. It may serve as 
a mere ornament or as 
an aid to the expres- 
sion of the text. 

may express beauty 

without any other thought 

than to ornament the page, 

or on the other hand, it may 

express thought without an 

effort to beautify. 

That initial which expresses beauty 

,nd conveys thought is the kind most 


There may be in an initial that 
which would cause many to peruse the 
article following, and without which it 
would be unnoticed. 

'The Journars" Writing Club. 

IN the previous issue of The JoDnsAi, 
we presented for your study and prac- 
tice the short or one-space letters. We 
present this month the different forms of 
what are termed the semi-extended letters, 
singly and in combinations. These are the 
only letters in the alphabet that occupy 
two spaces above the base line and one 
and one-half spaces below. Do not try to be 
extremely accurate in thismalter of spacing 
and thereby sacrifice your speed. Bear in 

be right, but the student who tries to fol- 
low both at the same time or to cut out a 
middle course for himself is pretty sure to 
go wrong. Choose one leader, follow him 
loyally and let the responsibility rest with 

The course of lessons by Prof. Patrick 
now running in The Journal is particu- 
larly designed for that class of students 
often designated as "home learners." It 
will be full and complete, and will leave 
nothing undone that is essential to the 
making of good writers. At the same time 
it is not intended to interfere or conflict 
with any business college course or course 
pursued by any other penmanship teacher. 
Doubtless there are students in schools who 

seriber becomes a member of '■ The Jour- 
nal's Writing Club," and is invited to 
send specimens of his work for review 
and critcism. They will be acknowledged 
either by letter or through The Journal — 
in the latter way when the points in ques- 
tion are of general interest to the class. A, 
postage stamp should be inclosed m the 
letter. As the lessons progress it is likely 
that some of the best specimens submitted 
by students will be engraved and pub- 
lished from time to time. If you experi- 
ence difliculties, state them, in order that 
proper advice may be given; if anything 
is not clear to you. say so, and it will be 
explainel. The fact is that the plan as 
outlined gives to The Journal subscriber 
all the privileges of a course of instruction 
by correspondence, worth at least five dol- 
lars. Is not this giving a large return for 
your subscription investment ? I think so. 
and I think you think so. If you do, I 
hope you will make it a point to lay these 
facts before every one of your friends who 
appreciates the comfort, the luxury and 
the hard-pan dollar-and-cents value of 
a good hand writing. Will you do it ? 

^^ ^^ ^ ^/--^-i^^-i^--^^ ..^^ 


Since the November Journal came from 
the press several have written to say that 
they had no fault to find with the business 
letter by Henry S. Gourlay, which appeared 
in that issue. And it is a good letter, as 
I distinctly said at the lime. The slight 
defect about it is the unnecessary use of 
capital letters. They occur in seven places 
where small letters would be better and, 
strictly speaking, the use of them is there- 
fore improper. I mention this in no criti- 
cal spirit and only mention it atall because 
there is a noticable tendency nowadays to 
employ capital letters more or less at ran- 
dom. Such tendencies should be dis- 
couraged. A capital letter should mean 
snnipthing, or it should not be used ; it 
should convey an idea that a small letter 
would not, or its use is improper. It is 
well to be particular in small things, or we 
shall be apt to go astray when we come to 
deal with large ones. In this connection 
The Journal acknowledges business-like 
drafts of Mr. Gourlay's letter with some 
modifications from W. W. Bailey, Albany, 
Oregon, and E. M. Cruse, Chicago, 

To know uiUal it is that would attract 
and the ability *o make it attractive, is 
the oflice of him who would excel in in- 
itial making. 

Submit outline drawings from life for 
aD initial P of a man standing with 
drawing board in left hand making a 
sketch. His right side nearest you. Draw- 
ing to be 2J X 7 inches. 

Also work in detail the following, size 
about %\\ \1\ inches. A tinted back- 
ground with shadows of ruins thereon. 
Make the grapes dark and the top leaves 
light. All drawings should be in my 
hands by January 5. 

E-vd'ciscii with Mr. Patrick's Lesson. 

mind what has appeared so frequently in 
these columns relative to position, move- 
ment, legibility, etc. You cannot master 
this entire lesson in a single hour. If you 
are in eiirnest about your work, you will 
find enough material in these exercises to 
keep you busy for a week. There is but 
one road to succi ss, and that is honest, 
earnest toil. 

.Largest Blank Book in the World, [j 

E. J. Decker of Chicago has made for 
Dr. Fahrney of the same city the largest 
blank book in the world. It weighs 280 
pounds, and it required the efforts of sev- 
eral draymen to load it on a dray for de- 
livery. Its leaves arc made of rope raanilla. 
It is bound in canvas and its covers weigh 
50 pounds. Attached to them are two 
padlocks and chains by which the contents 
of the hook can be locked (rom curious 

Short Chats with Learners. 

I WONDER if the boys and girls among 
The Journal's subscribers who wish 
to improve their handwriting but are not 
able to take a course of personal instruc- 
tion fully realize and appreciate the oppor- 
tunity offered them by this department ? 
I have not the slightest wish to interfere 
with any who already enjoy the advan- 
tage of personal instruction by a compet- 
ent teacher. Always keep in mind that 
when you place yourself under the care of 
an instructor the first thing essential to 
success is the soldier's duty of obedience. 
You must execute his orders and only 
his, or you cannot hold him responsible 
for the results. Teacbers, like gener- 
als, have different methods, though the 
end in view may be the same. Don't 
waste your energies by trjing to work out 
two or three different plans at the same 
time; such efforts lead to discouragement, 
confusion, failure. Because Mr. A does a 
thing one way and Jlr. B. another, it does 
not signify that one i8~wrong ; botlfmay 

would find the lessons a great help to them 
as a sort of supplementary course to the 
individual instruction they receive. I 
expect that many such will follow the 
lessons, but my advice is that every such 
student first consult his teacher. The alert 
penmanship teacher may be relied upon to 
keep himself posted as to these lessons. 
Probably he will approve them in all 
material points, for Prof. Patrick is known 
to be a careful, progressive, successful 
teacher, aod in that case he will be glad 
for his students to get what good they can 
from the lessons as an auxiliary to the 
personal instruction they receive. But it 
is better in every instance to consult the 
teacher on this point. 

Another important matter. The scope 
of this scheme of instruction is intended 
to be much wider than that of the usual 
penman'6 paper lessons It is designed 
not only to give instruction, but to keep 
in touch with the learner, to examine the 
work he is doing, criticise it; in a word, 
to do all that can he done without actual 
personal contact. Every interested sub- 

He Whistled. 

Old lady (to grocery boy) : ' ' Don't you 
know, boy, that it is very rude to whistle 
when dealing with a lady ? " 

Boy: "That's what the boss told me 
to, mum." 

Old lady: "Told you to whistle?" 

Boy ; " Yes'm. He said if we ever sold 
you anything we'd have to whistle for the 

Books are the friends of the friendless, 
and a library the home of the homeless. 
Taste for reading will carry you into the 
very best possible company, and enable 
you to converse with meo who will in- 
struct you with their wisdom and charm 
you by their wit; who will soothe you 
when fretted, refresh you when weary, 
counsel you when perplexed, and sympa- 
thize with you at all times. 



It is not without miBgivinga that I ac- 
cept for a time the reHpoosibilily of con- 
ducting tbifl important depariment in this 
great journal, (specially since I succeed 
one of the very ablest men engaged in pub- 
lic school work, Profegsor HofT, and am 
called to the place made vacant by the 
death of Prof 11. C. Spencer, whom we all 
mourn as one of the noblest of the pioneer 
htrots who labored so zealously to make 
our profission worthy of the public recog- 
nition and the honorable position it now 

In accepting this responsibility, I fully 
realize that it will be what the profession 
at large makes it. If all of you who are 
interested in this work will rally to the 
support of our depaitment by contributing 
the results of your thought and experience, 
we can build up a department which will 
be of incalculable value to us as teachers, 
and do more to advance the cause we love 
than anything which has ever been done. 

The JofUNAL is very generous in plac- 
ing at our disposal so much space, repre- 
senting hundreds of dollars of outlay. 
Let ua show our gratitude and apprecia- 
tion by making the most of it. 


Please send us such personal items as 
may come to your knowledfie. Those of 
us who are engaged in public school work 
need to become better acquainted with each 
other, aud this column is intended to con- 
duce to this end. 

Miss Lucy E. Keller, formerly Super- 
visor of Penmanship, Grand Haven, Mich., 
has gone still further West — Duluth, Minn. 
— where she holds a similar position. One 
who has read the many valuable contri- 
butions by Miss Keller in Toe Journal 
dots not need to visit the schools under 
her supervision to know that she is a suc- 
cess as a teacher. 

Howard Champlin, who was called to 
take charge of penmanship and drawing 
in tbe public tcbools of Nashville, Tenn., 
says in a per£onal letter that he is much 
pleased with bis new field of tabor, and 
promises to send ua an article on tbe con- 
dition of penmanship in the South. This 
will be looked forward to with great inter 
est. He also says that they are prepar- 
ing an exhibit for the World's Fair. 
" The Athens of the South " is very for- 
_ tuuatc in securing one of our most " level 
headed " young men. Mr. Champlin is a 
thorough student, a conscientious teacher 
aud haid worker, and has, we believe, a 
brilliant future. 

By the way, we wonder what has be- 
come of that other young Southern giant 
^intellectually), Myron 8. Beard 1 He 
seems to have deserted his brethren en- 
tirely since his happy marriage. While 
not at present engaged in public school 
work, he has valuable ideas upon all 
phases of our subject, and knows how to 
clothe them in the best of language, so 
we hope that he will soon awaken to the 
'"Stern realities of life.'" 

If you find anything in this issue of The 
Joi'KNAt. which has helped you. show the 
paper to your friends, call their attention 
to the Public School Department and 
thereby do them a real favor. 

We have a number of good things in 
store for early issues. Do not mifs them. 

Joi'RKAL readers will be delighted to 
kuow that that brilliant Western star, 
D. W. Hoff, will continue to favor us with 
scintillations fiom hie feitile brain and 

Encouraging Attitude of the 
Educational Press. 

One of the most encouraging "signs of 
the times" is the growing willingness of 
the strictly educational press to award to 
writing the important place it should have 
in our scheme of public school education. 
In this way ihe whole teaching profession 
will be reached and the result a new era, 
an era of legible writing by the masses. 

The School Jlifllftin has during the year 
published a very valuable series of articles 
by Supervisor Wells of Syracuse, and the 
last two issues of tbe New York School 
Journal contain a feast for those seeking 
light upon one of the most perplexing 
problems which confront the average 

The articles are all so good, each deal- 
ing with a different phase of the work, 
that we wish space would permit their re- 
publication entire, but we can only give a 
brief extract from each, and cordially in- 
vite the writers to favor this department 
of TnE Journal with contributions. 
Several of Ihim have already promised to 

I wci 

e restless ] Where is the school that 

play o( the muMiles, provided 
for. Musie to accompany if possible, giving 
the tiiut." or speed, is always to lie desired. 
When they Bud t*ut that writing rhythmically 

is a delight, they will uot be slow to improve. 
But associate, first and last, tuorrmrnt with 
ctosf-spaced nrritino, iu order that the relation- 
ship of one to the other may be rMxignized — cid- 
tivatioK muiK-ular sense — and the combination 

busy pen. His first article will probably 
be on the dutie.<i and work of a supervisor 
of penmanship in public schools, a new 
and important subject, and there is no one 
better able to handle it than Mr. Hoff. 

C. P. Zauer, being one of those valuable 
adjuncts to our profession who know 
more than their one specialty, renders im- 
portant service to our cause by lecturing 
before public school associations and in- 
stitutes. He always gives them solid food 
well prepared. 

We wish to secure the address of every 
special teacher and supervisor of penman- 
ship in the United States and Canada, in 
order to publish a complete list. Will 
you not kindly aid us by sending the name 
and address of every one you know ? 

Lyman D. Smith of Hartford, who 
needs no introduction to tbe teachers of 
America, being the author of " Appleton's 
Copy Books," promises to contribute fre- 
quently to this department. 

We intend establishing a question and 
■ answer column as soon as we have a stock 
of questions. Send in pointed questions 
concerning difficulties you have encoun- 
tered in your own work. 

Dr. Boutoo, Superintendent of Public 
Schools, Bridgeport, Conn,, one of those 
superintendents who regard the aubject 
of penmanship as of suHicient importance 
to merit the posiUoc encouragement of the 
most able school men, and who is a posi- 
tive power for the elevation of the habits, 
tastes and morals of the pupils, ha» 
promised to favor us with an article on 
"What a Superintendent can do to Im- 
prove the Writing in his Schools," or the 
duties of a superintendent in this respect. 
This is a new subject and we can guarantee 
that it will be ably handled. 

will alwavs 
he a large per cent, of forn>, thus s'e- 
curing easy actiou wiih legible 

develop the pupils' individu^ity. Mathemati- 
cal esactness is as detrimental to writing as to 
speech. Do not confound liberty with license, 
however, and allow the pupil to set up a 
standard for himself If well traintvi in move- 
ment, he will iudi\ii(ii;ili,'.[lir-i:,ii,liinl forms; 
hecannothelp lii. i\m in nlnifity flowing 

Supervisor of Penmanship, Uart/ord^Conn. 

. should precede desk 
.. , . .)il with awholeslickof 

crayon. Arrange the pupilsat the blackboard, 
arm's length from it, so that Ihe crayon rests 
lightly and easily on the board. In unison let 
the children make firm, even down strokes, 
working as the teacher counts. Let the teacher 
count at first somewhat slowly, then increase 
tbe time until the pupils move easily and 

Tbe first exercises to be given are the down 
and upward strokes with the crayon. Care 
should lie taken that the lines are of uniform 
length and even di-^tauces apart. Circle prac- 
tice should follow, repeating in the same circle 
until there is a free arm movement. The next 
work is to be done at the seats. Each pupil 
should have ample room for movement. 
Traini»{r School Princiijal in a Distin- 
guished Normal School. 

The teacher has previously written a copy on 
the board, as nearly perfect as possilile, be- 
tween lines ruled like those on the slates. Dis- 
cuss the letter to be taken, having a detailed 
word description given by the children. Give 
any terms the children will need in the descrip- 
tion. Ihe work at first is 
almost wholly individual. The teacher watches 
the child, guides bis baud when necessary, and 
encourages any efl'ort on his pai-t, even if the 
result is imperfect. In no lesson does she need 
more faith and patience. 

Begin with Ihe simplest principles, their com- 
binations, and finally tbe letter.^ based on these 
f)rinciples. Take another principle and the 
etters based on that. Followthe order given 
in a recognized system of penmanship. /iV- 
"""* 'h, proceed slotoly^ and encourage 

:t thing is movement. " What I 
in the first year i" Yes ; not the 
that we iKf* in the higher grades, 

but thi 
teachers devised 
skewers, for tenc 


If, on the contrary, the effort be to establish 
right relations between subject and object, be- 
tween mind and knowledge, writing will not 
be exijected until thd thought to be expressed 
is present in the mind, until the child has the 
desire to write, " the impulse to write," in 
order to express thought, 

Sara D, Jknkins. 
Professor of Methods New York College 

for the Training of Teachers. 

My first lesson is a "slant" lesson. I draw a 
few slanted lines upon tbe board and ask the 
pupils to make some for nie in the wide spaces 

fingers which ginsj) the jx-Dcil too tightly, tell- 
ing them the pencil cannot work well if 
§ inched, and notice whether they move it 
own or up in making the slants. I always 
find a few who choose the latter way. I con- 

sionally. later, for husv work. 

Brookline, Mass. 

DiBappolntments Due to Carelessness— 
Some Devices that have Worked Well 
Many teachers are often surprised at the 
kind of fruit resulting from their labor. 
We often wonder why it is that the very 
pupils who have been in our penmanship 
classes day after day and have practiced so 
diligently, prepare such miserable poor 
manuscript when placed upon examination 
or any other work in which a neatly writ- 
ten page is desired. 

In many cases the reason is this: In the 
every-day class work the student has not 
been taught to give attention to the neat- 
ness of the page of practice paper, but 
without any thought as to how the page 
will appear when completed, he scribbles 
over it, writes and rewrites, until the paper 
becomes a sight hcrrible to behold, and 
the pupil has thus acquired the habit of 

We too often lose sight of our goal in 
the means that we tfse to attain it. 

If the class is being drilled for move- 
ment alone, that is no reason why no at- 
tention should be given to the appearance 
of the written page. 

Ltt all your practice have system about 
it and avoid the habit of slovenliness in 
writing, even at the expense of a few more 
sheets of paper. 

Besides giving attention to neatness in 
all your work there should be special drills 
for this purpose. I have used the follow- 
ing plans with good results: 

Toward the close of the writing hour 
require each member of tbe class to pre- 
pare a full page of his best work from a 
copy or exercises placed on the board by 
the teacher. After having given just 
enough time for the page to be written, 
pass through the room and collect a num- 
ber of the best papers, aud hang them up 
in the room where they may be conven- 
iently examined by all members of the 
class after dismissal. Explain to the class 
that some of the specimens are exhibited 
for good points in one particular and some 
in another — as freedom of movement, leg- 
ibility, good form, general appearance, 

As another means of accomplishing the 
same end I have had prepared a number of 
practice books of about twenty-four pages 
each ; ten minutes of each hour is spent in 
writing in these books, and when filled 
they are taken up, graded and criticised. 
One side of every sheet is unruled, thus 
giving practice in writing on an unruled 
page. This is very important, as our best 
writing, and that which is seen by the 
general public, must be done without a 
line. W. E. Stipp. 

Buahnell, 111. 

We are very glad that Bro. Stipp has 
given so much emphasis to the importance 
of recjuiriug neatness and accuracy in all 
written work. It is the only way we can 
train the average pupil to habits of accu- 
racy and neatness, and such habits, when 
once estiablished, are invaluable. It is 
natural for some pupils to be cleanly and 
neat, but others must be trained to it by 
careful, constant, painstaking teaching. 
We think that teachers often require too 
much of pupils, almost compelling them 
to do their written work carelessly. Where 
the course of study will permit wa urge 
that teachers require only as much written 
work as can be done well in the time al- 
lowed, and then refuse to accept it until 
it is the pupil's hent effort. This course 
will have a wonderful effect upon all their 

" Read and Re-read— Sift, Select." 

Although the encouraging letter below 
was not written for publication, we think 
it worthy a place in Ibis department for 
the valuable hints it contains, especially 
regarding the practical application of sug- 
gestions gleaned from the professional 

The combined experience of others, 
properly digested, imbued with our own 
individuality, and incorporated into our 
work, is one of the surest means of growth 
and advancement, and in this statement 
Bro. Purdy has unintentionally conveyed 
to us the information that he is wide- 
awake, thorough and progressive — the 
only type of teacher who can hope to gain 
and maintain public confidence in this age 
of educational pruning and growth. He 

I am glad to team that you intend to con- 
tinue lessons on teaching penmanship in public 

The courses of lat« have been excellent, and 
many valuable hints and suggestions have been 

They are jast what t^cialists have wished 
for, and now we have them to our heart's de- 
sire, and tbankfl to The Jodbnal, 

My plan for some time has be«n not to 
read J011RNAI.S and then lay them aside, but to 
read and re-read, carefully sift, select parts 
that I think would tie a help to me in conduct- 
ing lessons; introduce them along with my 


own methods, and if they foil to have the de- 
sired effects throw them out. but if not, adopt 

I will aay just here that I have fouiid in 
most every Journal xomefhing that has been 
a help to me, and I pity tlie teacher who ninV 
fiet «om^ good from each and every Jocrnal. 
Keep the bail rolling and you wiil have sup- 

Most reapectfully yours, 

Supervisor Penmanship in Public Hchoois 
of Saginaw, Mich. 

Teaching Children to Write. 


AS THIS is the time when the founda- 
tion is laid for the child'8 future (d- 
ucatioD, and habits formed now are likely 
to be permanent, I rcgatd i'- as the most 
important jear of the school life, and shall 
devote much time and space to it. If all 
the habits of the little ones committed to 
our care during the first three years of 
school life are coirettly foiraed we shall 
have accomplished more than can be ac- 
complished in any other tbrte jears of the 
child's life. Then how sure we should be 
that we are right, and when sure, bow 
careful that nothing is neglected 1 Do 
■we always fully realize our great responsi- 
bility as teachers, and that we are not 
only building for time, but eternity ? 


The kind of mnierials used in all grades 
is of n ore importance than we are liktly 
to think, but the notion that any tciap of 
waste pap' r and an old pen that his father 
has thronn away is good enough for a 
hoy is rapidly vauishing from (he minds 
of parents, and there is a vast improve- 
ment in the average quality of materials 
ustd in Gchools. 

1 hope to see the time when slates are 
banished from the school-room, not only 
for technieal writing, but for any purpose. 
They are productive of more carelessness 
and slovenliness than any other one thing. 

The child, as a rule, acquires bad habits 
of position acd execution while using a 
slate, which require long and arduous 
work on the pari of both teacher and pupil 
to overcome. Sijmc of those bad habits 
are: Incorrect position of the hand and 
fingers; a habit of bearing down upon the 
pencil, which be could not do without 
breaking a lead pencil, and which re- 
quirts often a year or more to overcome 
after he takes a pen. In fact, this is one 
of the most serious and difficult habits to 
break. With a lead pencil and paper he 
would acquire a lightness of touch, and 
the change to pen and ink would not be 
like starting anew to learn how to write. 
In addition to these sins which the slate 
must answer for, the grooves cut for lines 
interfere seriously with a free movement 
of the point of the pencil over the surface. 

Prof. D. W. Hof! in his most able and 
valuable course of lessons in The Jodrnal 
strongly opposed the use of ilates, and 
Prof. Walter 8. Perry, Director of the 
Art Department of Pratt Institute, Brook- 
lyn, for many jears engaged in public 
school work, and one of the authors of 
Prong's Drawing, says: 

Pupils should not be allowed to work on 
slates. If theit) is one thing that causes more 
bad habits in school work than another, it is 
the slate. The slate saves a few pennies a 
year, hut writing, drawing and cleanly habits 
suffer greatly. When the pupils know that 
their work can easily be erased, they become 
exceedingly careless, and do not think enough 
about what they are doing; tbey trust to acci- 
dent for correctness of line, and if uot seciued 
the first time, they erase, and make a second 
thoughtless attempt. Morever, they lose the 
power to gain delicacy of touch, and so long 
as they work upon slates they fail to secure 
many desirable refoilts. 

the child 

ate the materials I would 

the first year, and I have i 

teacher "to go back to slates after using 

pencil and paper. 

We use in the Bridgeport schools a 
lit' le blank book about six by eight inchts, 
containing fifty sheets of a good quality 
of "'parchment paper " (costing five cente), 
rulea one space (one-eighth of an inch) 
between lines. The line on which the 
letters rest or "base lines" is red, and the 
lines which indicate the spaces, blue. This 
feature makes it very easy to have the 
child undtrslaud on which line ho is to 
write, as red and blue are the first colors 
children learn, at the same time giving 
the advantage of having all the spaces in- 
dicated, which it is almost impossible to 
have on slates. The teacher can use 
red and blue crayon for lines on the black- 
board, thus making it perfectly plain to 
the child where he shall write. 

The pencils used should be of good 
quality or they will prove very unsatisfac- 
tory to both pupil and teacher. Dixon's 
Century No. 3 is the btst cheap pencil 
that I know of (two to three cents), and 
Dixon's American Graphite, M. B. (five 
cents), the best. 

Preparing Slates. 

But slates must be used in many schools, 
and it is necessary that you know how to 
rule and use them. The accompanying 
picture illustrates the best method, in my 
opinion. The slate is first ruled from one 
cud to the other {across instead of the long 
way, as in illustration), like the upper 
pait of the illustration, as the pupilB make 
letters only one space high at the begin- 
ning and do not need the other space lines, 
which would confuse them as to which 
was the proper line to write on. Later, 
when they come to learn the two and three 
space letters, the space line can be added 

When a child first comes into the 
schoolroom, at the age of four to six (in 
fact, B bah}), the pencil which seems such 
a simple thing to us is to him a very iin- 

eldy implement, and be must be made 

nth i 

J it to I 

I be expected 
m^ It is. in 

my opinion, a great mistake to give 
child a (to him) complicated form to imi 
tate before he has acquired some degree o 
familiarity with the instrument heist 

as shown by unfinished line, and the space 
line below base line also, if desired, as 
shown by lower unfinished line. In 
that case, I would extend the htiic live 
across the vertical line to the frame of 
slate, making it longer than the others, so 
that the child would know on which line 
to write. [.Sec illustration of slate, ahoiic] 
Avoid making the spaces too wide. We 
DO longer have children learn to make the 
short letters half an inch high, but it is 
necessary that the spaces be a little wider 
than for older children, or for writing on 
paper, as the grooves cut away part of the 
space. Three-sixteenths of an inch is 
about right. 

rival }Feek's Worlt. 

Some of the most successful ttachers 
are now advocating the entire omiesion of 
technical writing during the first year, 
giving the time to training in position, 
movement, etc They claim that these 
can best be acquired apart from any at- 
tempt at making definite forms, and that 
there is no necessity for writing, the high- 
est mode of expression, until the child has 
acquired by training in observation, ideas, 
and from printed words, a vocabulary. 

I believe that this is, in the main, good 
doctrine, especially where children start to 
school at the age of four or five, but as a 
rule, the general course of study n quires 
written work and we must meet the con 
ditions. But I belitve that not less than 
one week should be given to this vitally 
important part of the work. We are 
starling the child upon a 

The hand cuts above illustrate a few 
exercises for hand gymnastics which aoy 
teacher can use in any class. You can 
easily devise others just as good, and they 
should be practiced regularly every day 

for several r 


emeuts and havi 

tally, teacher 

ments or counting while yomg tlimiitib tbe 
movements herself. Alternate betweeu thu 
horizontal and vertical movement^, cuuiitiug 
about ten times for each, until the •liildreo 
are a little tii'ed. 
3. Review. Have children keep the left 

(liaiid open), first towai-d the right and 
then the left, while you count. Move 
atmut tbe ro'>iii mid see that every pupil has 

Remtnibcr that careful, paiuslaktug 
thorough work this week will make your 
work easier next week, and so on for each 
succeeding week. 

(To be continued.) 


[Contributions for this Department may 
addressed to B F. Kgllby, -"■- -' •"--*- 

Africa has 700 languages. 

Ann Arbor opened with 2,.'i00 students. 

I River and its tributnries offer 
' s for very large 

2.5,000 miles of navigable i 

The average salaries of the mistrasses in the 
fjondon board schools is $!I50. 

San Francisco claims to pay the highest 
salaries to teachers, on the average, of any city 
in the country. 

Normal schools for teachers have been in 
exi^t^nce in Spain since 1S39. At present the 
country has 47 such schools for men and 3^1 for 

and attended on the a 

3000 students, is thethird largest in Germany. 

The school officials of Boston have posted 
notices in all the school buildings of that city 
forbidding the chewing of tobacco by the 
pupils. Ihey have even posted the notice in 
the girls' high school building, much to the in- 
dignation of theyoi'ng women. 

The total school ei,i..llnmnt fm- the Unit«d 
States reportfd Jnlv I , isni \\;j.; close to U - 

aOO.OOO. Tbetot.,1 |,mI.Ii,- -< I furollment, 

including about i;:,i)ni) i,, uimv. i siiies. sch'>ols 

•ejtly begun the 
rivate scl ' " 
isked tiy her f at j( 

. private school 

she knew about New York Bay. 

■' Oh, I don't know anything about that." 
was the reply, "but I can tell you all about 

" Nothing." was the response. 

" Well, you are just four yt-arsahead of most 
pupils. It tak-'s th'-m four years to learn 
what you start with. Your prospects aro fine. 

The board of education— the school ma%iter's 
" iii^^le. 
The L 
It a lie 

lu mathematics the cler;.y 
■ n uddil" 
in division.— /fti/ 

" I am not literary, but I can pen a stray 
article now and then," said the farmer's b<iy, 
as he drove borne the lost pig.— Baltimore 

" Listen," ^uld one student to another ; 
"There comes the profes.sor of mathematics, 
and from the way he's singing I should judge 

iistnicht : " I have a (lold m 
:old thme ; he has a gold his ; 
1 gold ours, yours or their 

head proceed 1 Should I what a time jilensunt 

iW'»o».' ■' You riEht are ! Up 

^ Should I what a time " ' 

have if all Herr Kannstnicht like ^ 

the middle. How many calves in all ? 

Michael: " G'bing, git." 


left band, right side of the desk, left side J. R. FAHHE., 



Postage Stamps by the Billion. 

aod illustrations 

jointd iimltcr, both t( 
is from tliat source. 

Of the fifiy-odd billion pieces of mail 
wliich arc posted in the world every year 
nearly three billionB go through the post 
offices of the United Plates. We spend 
every year more than $52,000,000 for 
postage, mid during Ihe past twelve 
moDtbs AmiritoB tongues have licked the 
backs of *;fi.OOO,000 worth of sticky 
stamps. The postage elampe sold every 
year the world over for surpass in 
value the riches of Jay Gould or the 
Hothschilds, and the postage stamp in- 
du*.try of the world is one of the great 
fiictors in the machinery which moves the 
universe to dny. And yet postage stamps, 
are of conipiiratively recent origin. Jt is 
barely fifty yiare ago since tbey were first 
used in England, and in 1847 Congress first 
autliorizi-d thtir use in the United States. 

P.e 6bampcf6lIouis. 'fl^'i ^^lue ^150- 


In no way can one get a better idea of 
the growth of the United States in both 
population and business than by looking 
over the statistics of stump sales. During 
the three years after stamps were first 
ftdo[)tcd, from 1847 to 1S51, only four 
million stamps in round uumbrrs were 
8old. It look the people about three vears 
to ^t-t Hctjiia'utcd with thtir vjibie and to 
show that they appreciated the reduction 
of the postage to three cents in 1852 the 
volume of letters increased almost fifty 

The reduction of the postage from three 
cents to two cents had a radical effect upon 
the stile of po-stal cards, a {?reat many 
people pnfirring to send their mail under 
cover ratlur than by card. It bad a great 
clTcct nbo on the use of envelopes for ad- 
vertiBing matter, many advertisers prefer- 
ring to send their circulars at the two- 
cent rate in scaled cnrclopes. 

Our postal cards were first issued in 
May, 187:t. and during the first two months 
of their use thvre were 31.000,000 of 
them issued. During the following year 
1*0,000,000 were used, and in 1878 the 
number had risen above 200,000,000. 
During the past year we used 386,000,- 
000 postal cards, and we expect to put 
out more than 400,000,OCO this year. The 
Government gels iheso- cards made for 
85 cents a thousand, or at the rate of 
thirty for a cent, and the contractors are 
complaining that theycau make no money 
at these rales. 

The ordinary postage stamiis cost Ihe 
Government a little more than seven ecu's 
a thousand, and these stamps are all made 

under contract and by private firms. The 
stamped envelopes cost proportionately 
much more, but the Government endeav- 
ors to increase the sale of these over the 
stamps to as great an extent as possible. 
It sells the envelopes at about cost, and 
you cannot buy of the stationers envelopes 
of an eciual quality at the cost of the 
stamped envelopes after deducting the face 
value of the postage. The use of stamped 
envelopes obviates the danger of the 
stamps fulling off in (he mails, and it les- 
sons the number of letters which come to 
the Dead Letter Office The paper of 
which they are made has a water-mark 
which effectually prevents counterfeiting, 
and there ia no danger of any one trying 
to wa^h the ink off a stamped envelope 
and thereby use it a second time for post- 

The stamped newspaper wrapper was 
first adopted in 1861, and the Department 
sold 1.000,000 of these during the first 
three months following their issue. They 
were first made bearing a two-cent ^tamp, 
and in October, 1870, the one-cent stamp 
was added. The increase of newspaper 
wrappers and stamped envelopes bad been 
steady since their reduction, and la^t year 
451,000,000 of the two were issuid. Of 
these 220,000,000 of the envelopes bore a 
request for return to the writer in case 
they were not called for. 

There is not the same scope for the en- 
graver in the making of the stamped en- 
velopes as there is in the postage stamps. 
There is an art in postage stamps, and the 
United States has stood high among the 
engravers of the world for years as to the 
beauty and finish of its stamps. The 
ftamj) collectors of the world now number 
hundreds of thousands, and every stamp 
is scrutinized in its minutest details. Our 
stamps are sent abroad in large numbers, 
and many people know America as much 
by its postage stamps as by anything else. 
In engraving a stamp the work is largely 
done in accordance with the colors in 
which the stamp is to be printed. If the 
stamp is to be of a dark green it will need 
a different sort of engraving from what it 
would receive were the color to be brown 
or red. This can be easily seen by look- 
ing at different stamps and by noting the 
bad effects which have been produc<d 
when a color has been changed from the 
one which was originally aHopted when 
the engraving was iiiiule. 

Soliad Ta^as.ieeiil 

JLiJirigstori. . Ala 

This, it seems to me, was the (rouble 
with the green stamp which has just gone 
out of use. The engraving was not 
adapted to the color. The green three- 
cent stamp was a work of fine art, and if 
you will take the old green three and com 
pare it with the late green t%vo jou will 
see what I mean by engraving in accord- 
ance with color. In the green three-cent 
stamp the background of the oval is heav- 
ily shaded and the head stands out in 
slrong relief. In the two-cent stamp the 
background is lighter, and this gives the 
siamp a lack of tiiong contrast and makes 
it look fiat and lame. 

An Elephant Farm for California. 

Well, Well ! How would The JontSAL 
boys and girls like to sit down to a break- 
fast of nice juicy elephant chops, each 
chop running the length of the breakfast 
table ? 

California proposes to " bear " the 
African market. She now has broken in 
upon the ostrich feather trade, and one of 
her citizens, Mr. Newbuary, proposes to 
establish an "elephant farm." Mr. New- 
buary, in an interview in the Timr^t- 
Mirror, thinks great practical uses could 
be found for the elephant. He thinks as 
an article of food be is better than the 

All African explorers speak highly of 
elephant steaks. The full-grown elephant 
weighs about 7000 pounds, and Mr. New- 
buary estimates that he can count on some 
3000 pounds of first-cla^s meat from each 
animal. In twenty-five years he expects 
to see elephant meat for sale in all mar- 
kets. Steaks as big as bed mattresses will 
hang up on all sides, and French elephant 
chops with handles on them si-\ feet long 
will He on the counters. Elephant hides, 
he thinks, will be found valuable for 
leather; slightly thick, perhaps, but it can 
be split. Then there is the ivory, always 
in good demand. The clip of wool from 
an elephant will, of course, be admits, be 
small, but there were formerly woolly ani- 
mals of the elephant kind, and he does not 
see why careful breeding may not revive 
the species. Fine all California elephant's 
wool clothing he considers a possibility of 
the future. But it is not alone in these 
ways that Jlr. Newbuary e.\pects to be 
able to teach California to profit from the 
elephant. It is a powerful and intelligent 
animal, and as a beast of burden will be 
as successful in California as in India. It 
can be readily broken to harness and can 
draw enormous loads. Nor does he de- 
spair altogether of the elephant as a driv- 
ing animal. He thinks it not unlikely 
that the California trotting elephant may be 
evolved as the American trotting horse baa 
been. Cabmen may yet call out: " Keb, 
sir, keb ! Nice closed keb and rapid ele- 
phant 1 " Of course, as a saddle beast the 
elephant has already proved its superiority 
in the Orient. Its gait, however, at pres- 
ent is irregular, but Mr. Newbuary sees no 
reason why it may not be taught a grace- 
ful canter and a swinging gallop. But the 
most praclical place where the elephant 
can be put to immediate usefulness Mr. 
Newbuary considers to be the orange 
groves. ''In picking oranges," sajs Mr. 
Newbuary, " the trained elephant would 
be a great success. He would come as a 
boon to orange growers. He could readily 
reach all over Ihe trees with his trunk 
and carefully pick the fruit and place it in 
a bag bung iiroUnd his neck or a basket 
tied on his back. He could pick mure 
oranges than ten men, and never strike for 
higher wages or flirt with the hired girl. 
If I were asked to name in three words 
the hope of California for the future, I 
should answer 'Elephants, elephants, ele- 

Cost of Living, Dying, Getting Married 
and Getting Drunk. 

istician have brought out the fact that 
gettine bom tost the pecple of the United 
States $250,000, 000 annually; that the 
total expenses of getting married are 
$300,000,000, and that getting buried 
costs 175,000.000. The addition of the 
fact that getting drunk costs us $900, 000,- 
000 per year udds a new and Earcastic 
imprtssiveness to the admonition : *' With 
al! ihy getting get understanding." — Pitta- 
burgh DUpateh. 

"Frldiy Uok," Good and Bid. 

Friday is an unlucky day. they say. 

Well, yes ; and sa are Saturday, Sunday 
and the rest of the week if a day ia to be 
called unlucky because some unpropitious 
events happen on it. Here are some nota- 
ble events happening on Friday, handed 
up by a careful investigator whose name 
Toe Jochnal would be glad to give if it 
bad any means of finding out: 

Lee surrendered. 

Moscow was burned. 

Washington was bom. 

Shakespeare was born. 

America was discovered. 

Richmond was evacuated. 

The Bastile wa's deployed. 

The Majtlower was landed. 

Queen Victoria was married. 

Fort Sumptcrwas bombar<lcd. 

King Charles I. was beheaded. 

Napoleon Bonaparte was born. 

Julius Ca?8ar was assassinated. 

The battle of Marengo was fought. 

The battle of Waterloo was fought. 

The battle of Bunker Hill wa.-; fought. 

Joan of Arc was burnetl at the stake. 

The battle of New Orleans was fought. 

The Declaration of Independence was 

Are there no "lucky " things in the list ? 
TuE JouKSAL takes very little stock in 
"luck," any way. It is good enough in 
its way, perhaps, but the person who put8 
a P before it and works it out on that 
plan is the one who gets the most out of 
life every time. 

The Storm King. 

Here is a charming bit of description, 
whether one be interested in birds or not, 
by Michelet, a distinguished Frenchman : 

I see a small blue point in the heaven. 
Happy and serene region which has rested 
in peace far above the hurricane 1 In that 
blue point, and at an elevation of ten 
thousand feet, royally fioats a little bird 
with enormous pens. A gull ? No ; its 
wings are black. An eagle? No; the 
bird is too small. 

It is the little ocean eagle, first and chief 
of the winged race, the daring navigator 
who never furls his sails, the lord of the 
tempest, the scorncr of all peril — the man 
of war or frigate bird. 

We have reached the culminating point 
of the series commenced by the wingless 
bird. Hire we have a bird which is vir- 
tually nothing more than wings, scarcely 
any body, barely as large as that of the 
domestic cock, while his prodigious pin- 
Ions are fifteen feet in span. The storm 
bursts; he mounts to lofty heights where 
he fiuds tranquility. The poetic metaphor, 
untrue when applied to any other bird, is 
no exaggeration when applied to him; 
literally, he sleepK iiiiou llu: nform. 

When he chooses to oar hia way seri- 
ously all distance vanishes; he breakfasts 
at the Senegal ; he dines in America. 

Mosquitoes by Weight. 

This comes from Boston {The Qhhe) and 
should be official : 

It is told of a great author ihac be was 
wont to amute himself by jumping over a 
chair. But I have a correspondent who, 
as the following shows, amuses himself by 
weighing mosquitoe.s: 

" Deah Bud BiirEU: L have recently 
weighed some mosquitoes of this locality 
on a sensitive balance. The average 
weight of one mos<|uito was 1.27 milli- 
grammes — that is, it would take three 
hundred and sixty thouHand (360,000) to 
weigh a pound. 

"Mosquitoes which had filled them- 
selves with human blood were found to 
weigh about three limo- as much us others, 
showing that they had swallowed twice 
their weight in blood." 

Bad luck is simply a man with his banda 
in his pockets and a pipe in his mouth, 
looking on to see how it will come out. 
Good luck is a mau of pluck to meet diffi- 
culties, his sleeves rolled up, working to 
make it come out right. 

'^Cyenmun^ Qytkt oJdtcz/uiCP 

Biirs Tenor and My BaB8. 

\a>rh \\)^ belli of\ Q)ri5f'fT\&.s k^^y 
' f T^e ojor^s repeat - m 

f. JoAn«on o/ The Journal Art Depnrlm 

Guarding Uncle San 
The Treasury watch 
seventy veteran aoldiers who are cut into 
three squads, dividing every twenty- four 
hours into three equal watches of ei^ht 
houra each. The men wear no uniforms, 
and would not impress the casual visitor 
to the Treasury during the hours when the 
pnblic is admitted. The guards go un- 
armed during the day, but at night carry 
a large 42-caUber six chambered revolver, 
which is too large to be concealed in a 
pocket and must be carried in the hand all 
the time. Every one who passes the 
Treasury at night may see pacing to and 
fro iu the lofty area between the granite 
pillars and the wall of the building solitary 
fioures. A person cannot approach 
within one hundred feet of the building 
without seeing a guard. Such a watch- 
man, silent and martial in bearing, guards 
each of the four entrances to the Treasury. 
The guards who traverse the corridors at 
stated intervals touch electric buttons to 
announce their presence in certain parts of 
the building. All this system of interior 
watchfulness was the work of Secretary 
Folger, who during his term in office lived 
in constant dread of an attack on the 
Treasury. So far as human watchfulness 
can be relied on the Treasury is guarded, 
but there must soon be new safes, and the 
couuuission will soon report to Treasurer 
Nebeker its recommendations for building 
new vaults and strengthening the old ones. 
—Am. Youth. 

Jura Simlonp Roilway ing from 7,000,000 to 5,500,000 horse- 
Companv a line, which power. Taking the figures ns 6,000,000 
only, this gives the total horse-power of 
the whole of the steam engines and loco- 
motives on the earth as 40,000,000. The 
horse-power of a steam engine may be 
estimated as equivalent to the power of 
three horses, and the power of a horse is 
equivalent to that of seven men. The 
world's steam engines, therefore, represent 
total of 1,000,000,000 men, 
or double the number of 
world, the total population of the ea 
being estimated at 1,480,000,000 souls. 

terminates on the 
north at Brigue, with 
Domod O olla, on the 
south in Italy, the 
existing terminus of the 
Italian Mediterranean 
Compauvi> line. It is 
estimated that the total 
cost of the tunnel and 
if approaches will be 
i\i 000 000. 

Brigue to the 
center of the mountain there will be but a 
single boring which will be large enough 
to receive a double line of rails. The tun- 
nel will then be divided into two smaller 
tunnels, running parallel, and each contain- 
ing a single line of rails. It is thought this 
plan will he most economical and better for 
the purposes of ventilation. An exhaustion 
shaft is to be made at the highest part of 
the boring, where the tunnel divides and 
where the volume of smoke and gases 
will naturally be greatest. All the people 
of French Switzerland are very anxious to 
see the realization of this scheme. The 
junction of thtse two railway systems will 
bring southwest Germany into more direct 
communication with the important towns 
of Northern Italy. 

To Tunnel the Alps Again. 
Another great railroad tunnel is to be 
dug through the Alps, and Geneva is 
greatly rejoiced because she 
thinks she will now catch 
some of the travel which has 
|0Dg been attracted over the 
Gothard route to Zurich and 
the Reuss Valley. The tun- 
neling of the Simplou has 
taken detiuitc form, aud 
work is to begin at once. 
The tunnel will connect the 

Steam Power on Earth. 

According to the Leipsic Tmjehhttt, 
four-tilths of the world's steam engines at 
present in operation have been constructed 
within the last quarter of a century. 
France po&s£sse847,590 stationary engines, 
7000 locomotives and 1850 marine engines; 
Germany, 59,000 stationary engines and 
boilers, 10,000 locomotives and 1700 
marine engines; Austria only 12,000 sta- 
tionary engines and 2800 locomotives. The 
force of the steam engines in operation in 
the United States is equal to 7,500,000 
horse power, of those in England to 
7,000,000, in Germany to 4,500,000, in 
France to 3,000,000 and iu Austria to 
1.500,000 horse-power. In these figures 
the horse power of locomotives is not 
included ; in the beginning of 1890 
the total number of the world's loco- 
motives amounted to 105,000, repreaent- 

Trylng to Spoil Another Pretty 
Historical Story. 
One by one the cherished idols of child- 
hood go by the board, and we learn that 
Queen Isabella as the patron of Columbus 
no more existed than Tell with his apple 
and Nero with his fiddle. At least this 
is the stand taken by many Indies in the 
Northwest against the Isabella statue busi- 
ness at Chicago in connection with the 
big fair. They declare that Isabella did 
not believe in the tbtories of Columbus, 
and made no sacrifices for him, not even a 
finger ring, but that his friend, the court 
Intendant. borrowed from the treasury of 
Aragon the 17,000 florins necessary to 
equip his three shabby little ships More- 
over, they say that the Queen who exiled 
150,000 wealthy and intelligent Jews, the 
manufacturers, artisans and learned men 
of the land, ought not to be canonized in 
marble by the women of a free republic. 
The battle between the fair disputants is 
still on. 

Business Writing Clubs. 
Business Writing Clubs appear to be 
gaining in favor. Many have beenorgau- 
ized during the past year, some of them 
numbering hundreds of members. They 
are instructed usually in tenksson terms 
by expert penmen. These clubs have regu 
lar officers — president, vice-president and 
secrttary. When properly conducted 
there can be no doubt as to the healthful- 
ness of their inlluence, and we are in- 
formed that there is a steadily growing 
demand for them in various sectioni of 

the c 


; short and dapper, while I ' 
id tall— 
owin' wbii 
Clothes would nevpr seem to s 

Folks used to laugh and say I v 
ful slim, 
But Bill's clothes St him like the 

And w« wei-e the sparkin'est beaus in all the 

When Bill sung tenor and I suug bass 1 

!Jyrus Baker's o'Jest girl was member of the 

as black as Kehey'ticat, ai 
as fire! 
dbe had the best sopranner 

" Chiny " like a bird; 
Never done better than with Bill a-standin' 

A-boldin' of horhymu book so she wouldn't 

Then tliere was Prudence Hubbard, so cosy- 
like and fat- 
She suDg alto and wore a pee-wee hat; 
Beaued bnr around one winter, and first 
thinir I knew, 

1 the portico I up and called 

Oil all the works of Providence she set a 

cheerful face, 
When Bill was siugin' tenor and I was sing- 
Bill, never more we two shall share the fun we 

used to then. 
Nor know the comfort and the peace we bad 

When you v 

fhe music folks have nowadays ain' 

used to be, 
because there aiu't no singers now 

like Bill and me; 
■Why, Lemuel Bangs, who used 

SpringSeld t 

go 1 

) had 

Admitteil that for siugiii' Bill and i 

When Bill wont soariu' up to A and I dropped 
down t« D ! 
Tho olfi hull-tiddle Beza Dimmit played 

woiu't iu the race 
'Loiigside of Bill's high tenor and my sonor- 

knew him any n 

;of '; 

Then Cyrus Baker's oldest girl— she kind o' 

pined a spell, 
And, haukorm' after sympathy, it naterally 

That she man-ied Deacon Pitkin's boy who 

kep' the general s' 

Since Bill sung tenor and I sung bass. 
As I was settin' by the stove this evenin' after 
I noticed'wife kep' bitchiu' close and closer up 

1 heerd ber gin a sigh that seemed to coma 
from fur away— 
Couldn't help iuquirin' what the trouble might 

" Was thinkin' of the 

a■bl•e^hiu" at 
'•When Hill sung 

" says Prue, 
and you sung basa \' 

The Fourtain Pen— Old and New. 

. a new fountain pen is a very good thing 
When it worlis 1 
But, oh, how you're tempted to give it a fling 

t won't work, by 

And"" tbe best you can do is to make the old 
thing go 

By jerks. 

You spattf r the blotter, you pound with your 

) sucked dry, that parcfaed lips 

Being Christian, you keep all 

your thoughts to yourself, 

As you bbould, 

Aud you throw your new prize 

ou the very t*>|> sbeU — 

Well and g-xid ! 

Vou bimt up your iuk>tuud. 

-^SomemtUe Journal. 


PENMAN'S Art Journal 

Ad^trtixing rattm, SU cti\tn prr iwnpareH 
linf, $i.50prr inch, rach insrrium. Diaeountt 
for t«rm and Kpact. Special e:dimate* fur- 

cm/*, Mo frt» tampla except 

ayents who are wubticribert, to aid them \ 

taking wub»criptic 

ninor ol iL« frofeMlon 184 

thnitiut. Tht He^'/talurei will heeif, tvi/% fhr 

fouittymakt it. Already wf Ame in Aand aniV- 
6rr of fin, tneravmgt /or tk,, istut, including a 
btautt/ul kalf-tont ftfrrstntolum of " St. CfOrgr 

r*".V;'"'"*""4''</ J''y"NA»./-rr. Ancthtrstrfk- 
ing itiuHraliPn «.,// 6t a Aaadtfimr f/nu Year 
dtsigt, tcmbixatwn of/lourhhimgandtertttM that 

/«wf«. /«/i.^.M^/fl«««r, lol-RN.L w'il 6, in 
nrry dtpartment one */ tAe But ilimtrated and 
w«/ atlratitvt /mmantMif popart ever brought 


TJiActiKit's Vinn: 

My Deah Mn. Ames: 

As a penmaD and commercial college 
teacher and reader of Tiik Jouunal for 
many years, I wish to congratulate you on 
the carefully edited, subalantial and su- 
jierbly illustrated paptr you nre giving us. 
The origiualily of The Journai. in in- 
venting new features for our profit and 
entertainment is simply marvelous. I no- 
tice that tbtse new fenturcs start with 
The JounNAL. Without attempting to 
make a catalogue of them, I readily ncall 
that it. first of all penmanship papers, has 
introduced and popularizid: 

Ornate initials, end pieces, etc.; illus- 
trated convention reports; special depart- 
ment for public schools; pictorical comic 
designs; piize penmanship competitions; 
employment bureau service ito the efficacy 
of which I can personally testify) ; half- 
tone and general illustrations cihibiling 
the highest order of the penman's art; 
specimens showing the writing of busincK 
college teachers and pupils, and, by no 
means lea t. The Jocrnai/s wonderful 
way of accumulating and serving news re- 
lating lo the j>erfor,nel of the prof<8sioD. 
If there be a commercial school proprietor 
or a penmanship teacher who doesn't feel 

grateful to you for producing the sort of 
paper TsE JocRKAL is, and doesn't 8ho» 
bts appreciation by using bis influence in 
ilB behalf among his pupils and friends in 
the way of subscriptions, it seems to me 
that he is certainly not only untrue to them 
and behind the times, but painfully want- 
ing io those attributes by which our 
profession should be distinguished. — M. 
L. Miner. Pratt Inatitute. Brooklyn, JV. T. 


Our friend, Mr. J. W. Warr of 
Motine, III., has long enjoyed a reputation 
as a humorist. One has only to mention 
the name to set any deniz.n of that local- 
ity roaring with laughter at thought of 
the many side splitting jokes which for 
years have intersprinkled insiduous dis 
quisitions on "How we Sow Yellow 
Squash" and "Sure Death to Potato 
Bugs" in his paper, the ^Vest€n^ Plowman. 
In fact, we can bear personal testimony to 
the mirth-provokiug proclivities of our 
friend as evidenced by the choice jeu 
d^xprit bric-a-brac which is a distinguish- 
ing feature of his many and able publica- 
tiona, from jests flavored with "garden 
sass " in his Plotcman to subtle witticisms 
on the virtues of Sweatine "to correct 
offensive perspiration of the armpits," in 
the last number of his Business Educatiin 

It is a rare good thing to have the repu- 
tation of being a funny man and a rarer 
good thing to be one; our friend has the 
one and is the other. We congratulate 
him. Where such humor resides, bilious- 
ness arid dyspepsia have no place. Swtat- 
ine and Breathiue are anomalies; and. 

was to stand as the ofl^cial representative 
paper of the entire business-teaching pro- 
fession, and not simply for the " very 
small minority " which Mr. Warr assures 
us "is composed in the B. E. A." This 
minority assuredly includes some of the 
brightest men in the profession ; but doi:s 
our jocular friend mean to say that all 
commercial schools that wei not repre- 
sented at the late meeting and bot let into 
the "organ" secret are, like Dixie's bal- 
toonists, "not in it" so far as limiiifsn 
Ednration is concerned f Or perhaps our 
homely intellect is not equal to the subtle- 
ties of this joke. 

It is refreshing, also, from our sim|>le 
standpoint, to learn from Mr, Warr that 
these rank outsiders " would not expect 
to be asked to decide what particular 
paper or magazine teas adopte^l as ita or- 
gan." To which might be added, if all re- 
ports are true, that in addition to the out- 
siders a good many insiders were not in- 
vited to share in the decision until alt the 
"adopting" had fallen into the past 
tense, as Mr. Warr very appropriately em- 
ploys it. No statement of the facts could 
be ueater or more precisely fit the case, as 
we understand it, than the literal value of 
these words from Business Eduaition''ii07in 
mouth. All this might not have been, our 
friend infers, had the committee in charge 
of the late convention been gifted with 
foresight, and we quite agree to this view. 
Nothing seems more certain, however, 
than that our brilliant friend himself had 
been subjected to a timely endowment of 
the prophetic spirit, and there is a nebu- 
lous impression abroad that one or two 
gentlemen sustaining business relations 
with him, and supposed to possess an offi- 

tickling his rural constitueocy with the 
facetious details of "Fence rait Philos- 
ophy " to give attention to the real facts, 
has evidently borrowed I he statement from 
one or two individuals who have used it 
in their guerrilla warfare against The 
JouRNAi,, knowing it to t)e a perversion 
of truth and a slander, Thise particular 
men. by the way, have rarely contributed 
anything to The Journal, even their own 
subscriptions, beyond working it for such 
free advertising as they could get and 
loading its files with paper expressions of 
approval and esteem. The fact is, Mr. 
Warr, that years and years before the com- 
mercial school fraternity of this country 
grew to be so numcr us and powerful a 
body as to open up to you a vision of 
profit in running an otticial "orga^" to 
represent it. The Journal was struggling 
with all its might to build up and main- 
tain an organization that would tend to 
knit together the brotherhood, popularize 
it with the general public and enlarge its 
possibilities of usefulness. How much 
influence The Jottrnai, exerted in this 
direction it is not for ua to say, 
but no one at all conversant with the 
facts will deny that it gave its space 
and ita resources in the fullest possible 
For years no other publication 
paid any attention to this 
matter. During this time when Toe 
JouKNAL was fighting the battle alone, it 
happened, two or three times in thirteen 
years, that the Association appropriated a 
small amount in payment for advertising 
given it. The Joiirnal was then, as 
now, first of all a penman's paper. The 
proportion of space it devoted to the As 
eociation was always much in excess of 
what it could afford, and at a considerable 

though with characteristic generosity the 
festive proprietor may offer to the less 
fortunate patrons of Buhiucxh Edvcatwn 
Crimpine to make their hair curl, and 
Bleachinc for "moles, freckles, black- 
heads, oily skin, &c , warranted not to 
streak the complexion," perish the thought 
that he personally can ever feel the need 
of such commodities. 

One of the latest and most successful 
ebullitions of our gifted friend appears in 
the November issue of his new "organ," 
BmiwM Education, and relates to a narra- 
tive printed in The Journal for October 
under the heading, "Historjof an Organ," 
We quote: 

There is one instance in which a suspicion 
might be aroused that he [the editor of The 
Journal) was trying tr> manufacture senti- 
ment against the manner in which Business 
Education was established, by making wholly 
unwarrantable inferences When he slates 
that there are aliout I'^iOO commercial college*, 
with at leai}t ;i(K)0 t^-achers, who were not cou- 
sulr«l in this movement, the inference is that 
these schools are all meml>ers of the B E. A 
If they were not, they would not eipect to be 
asked to decide what parliclor magazine or 
paper was adopted as its organ. That this is 
very far from being true every business edu- 
cator knows. A vei'v small minority is com- 
posed in the B. E. A- 

Blessus! The essence of this statement 
U almost as comical as its grammar. 
Fancy The Journal appealing to the 
" 1200 unrepresented schools and the 3600 
unrepresented teachers," and trying to de- 
ceive them into believing that they are 
members of ihe B. E. A. ! We blushinglj 
admit, however, having assumed in our 
former comments that Bmincs* Education 

cial "pull," were similarly endowed 
plenty long in advance of the meeting to 
have let it be known that so important 
a step was contemplated. We may be 
wrong in this. When our friend prints 
the ante-convention history of the "organ'* 
which he is supposed to be at work on we 
shall know all about it oflicially, and it 
will doubtless make very fine reading. 

That we are liable to error is freely ad- 
mitted. A case in point was our failure to 
remember meeting Mr, Warr at any of the 
conventions we ottended. Our friend 
calls our attention to this error, stating 
that he was present at several conventions 
and made speeches. This is doubtless 
true. Our mistake is probably due to the 
fact that in preparing the lists of the 
members whose contributious to the B. E. 
A. on a basis of hard cash as well as elo- 
quence, the name and fame of Warr have 
apparently eluded the historian of that 

But the funniest thing of all is this para- 
graph from Business Education, which 
immediately follows the quotation above: 

When year after year the Association voted 
a certain paper [The JodiNAi.] a "sulisidy" 
in good sound dollars (or making a popular 
report of the couventiou, this que.stion was 
never raised, although 11.50 out of 1200 schools 
were not consulted. If liuaintss Education, 
to whom not one dollar had been voted by the 
B. E. A., was rot adopted as the offidal organ 
on ■• good business principifs." how about the 
business principles un which former "subsi- 
dies" have l>een granted ( 

We quote this joke in full, because Mr. 
Warr, who in the past has been too busy 


sacrifice of other interests. The few allow- 
ances that were made all together would 
not pay for the typesetting, white paper 
and othir expenses involved in the report 
of a single specified meeting. Year in and 
year out, regardless of appropriation. The 
Journal published fully and freely all the 
official annoutc(ments, editorial after 
editorial and an extended report of the 
proceedings, and laid them before the 
members of the Association ar;d its tens of 
thousands of readers who were not mem- 
bers, months in advance of any official 
publication of the proceedings. It may 
interest you and enlighten you, Mr. Warr, 
to read the subjoined extract from the offi- 
cial pioceedingsof theB. E.A. agoodmany 
years before the publisher of Busmesa 
Education made up his mind to sacrifice 
himself upon the altar of practical educa- 
tion, conditionally upon being presented 
with an exclusive B. E. A. franchise and 
a subsidy of ten thousand subscriptions 
raised by members of that organization : 

Mr. Packard read the following relative to 
Thk Penman's Art Jolbnal. which unani- 
mously adopted as the sense of the meeting : 

" Inasmuch as Mr. Dau'I T. Ames of Ntw 
York, editor and publisher of The Penman's 
Art Journal, hns, from its inception, aided 
and promoted the purposes of the Business 
Kducators' Association— having, in fact, in an 
important semie been its father ; aod inasmuch 
as bis band and btart are always in the work 
of our specialty, always ready to do good work 
for education and morality, we, the memliers 
of thai aesocintion iu convention asisembled at 
Wflsbiugton, ffel It to l)e no less a duty than 
a plea-fure to commend Mr. Ames and his 
journal to pubhc favor. 

"Especially do we commend him and it to 

/iiilial hy S. D. Hull. 

HE PENMAN'S ART JOURNAL feels that it can safely promise its readers to 


the coming year. Contracts have been entered into with prominent members of the 

profession to supply papers and illustrations embracing all the leading phases of 

' the penman's art. Some of these series are h(^7(' running. Others are in hand and will 

follow shortly. Among the many attractions already provided for are : 

Hints to Home Learners. — Lessons by W. H. Patrick and Others. 

The JOURNAE, has engaged Mr. W. H. Patrick, one of the best writers and teachers in Ihe country, to give 

a thorough course of lessons, designed especially to reach those who have not the advantage of personal 

instruction. Those who follow these lessons will have all Ihe privileges o( a course o( lessons by mail 

that would cost from $.1 to Js. asking questions, sending their work for criticism, etc. Mr. I'ATRrcK's 

ons will be supplemented by ■' Short Chats by the Editor "and helpful suggestions from many sources. 

(Mr. Patrick's Lessons were begun in November, 1891. ) 

Inilials, Eiul-Picces, etc. — How to Make Them. 

Everybody must have noticed Ihe demind for ornate initial letters, end-pieces, etc., for books, periodicals, catalogues, etc., opening up 
a new field for the penman. The brilliant work in this line done by Mr. C. H. Zanfr has led The Joornal 10 arrange with him 
for a series of papers of instruction. The plan is wholly outside of the usual rut. The learner is made to do his part, being 
told in advance what the illu^ration is 10 be. and required to work it out according to his own ideas. Mr. Zaner has 
do this better than he has ever done anything, and that means a great deal. (Begun in November, 1891.) 

Frec-ltand Drawing ami Illustrating. 

Arrangements are being perfected (or a series of lessons in this most important branch. 

Engrossing, Lettering and Brusli-Marking. 

Each of these subjects will receive attention during the coming year by well-known experts. They will all be fully illust 

Hmu to Make Money Wit/i a Shading Pen. 

This will be told by one who speaks from experience. The resources of this little instrument are just fairly beginning 
to the general public. These papers will be illustrated. 

Jlusiness Forms, Business Mctliods and Business Law. 

> of papers on these subjects which it is believed will be of great benefit 
) make. The object will be to make Ibem familiar with forms of " commei 
ive practical hints on handling business correspondence, inctudine the 
m, filling mail orders, etc. The illustrations wifi be by The Job 

Tlie Penman's Leisure Hour —Introducing our Galaxy of Flourishers. 

While The Journal is the warmest sort of an advocate of order, plainness and neatness in bt 

The Editor 



I i 


people wl 


ve their 


aflaw ; to 

with the 




tiers, fill 




suiting th 

nercia paper 
he wnling ai 
; Art Staff. 


, Mo 

al, offering new and 

of their skill. An efforl 


. Far 


, We 


will be madi 

idy been made for producing speci 

tcy ■' Series begun in December, 

get away from the i 



Pcnmatiship in Public Schools. — Points from Li 

This department of The Journal's work has been greeted with entt 

durine the coming year. Mr. J. C. Witter's papers will cover tue c-iuiic cuursc, i.ii-ir i i 
through all the grades. The papers will be fully illustrated by Mr. Witver and Tin I ■ 
ers will desLribe their methods and contribute hints, criticisms, etc.. lo this dcpartn}^ ■. 
includes Chas, R.Wells, Lucy E. Keller, Mary E. Smith. Howard Chami'LIn, fi \\ tin 
W. H. Beltz. W. F. Lyon, J. O. Wise. C. W. Slocum, D. H. Farley, J. P. Byrne. H, W. Col 
NELL. S. S. PuRDY and many other teachers experienced in public ancfgraded school work, (ft 

Pcnmajiship in Business Colleges. 

This subject, as in the past, will receive thorough and careful attention from acknowledged leade 

Training Teachers, Getting Situations, Holding Them. 

Points from those who have had experience, which will be of special value to young teachers. 

Making Pen Copy for Reproduction by Photo-Processes. 

It is surprising, after all that has been said, how many capable penmen fall far short of the best r< 
cess reproduction. They have learned a few points, probably, but there are many things that i 
things mostly, but quite essential. These we propose lo tell, systematically and connectedly, d' 
engraving, itinc-etching, photo-'^"- ■-■-- '-" '- -* - --'- 

mistakes, etc., with hints as to I v ■ . ^ 

used. This series of papers alone ought to be worth the subscript! 

ill be further strengthened 

! .N D. Smith, A. W. Shaylor. 
. A. Moulder, E. A. MacDon- 
itter '5 Course begun Nov., iSgi.) 

s when they i 

. . . . , .- binglhechie 

lithographing, half-tone work, etc. ; pointing out special advantages of each; 
andlinK the plates in the printing and much general information, lllustralit 

Organizing and Co7iducting Writing Classes. 

Many penmen make money conducting night classes, summer classes, four-week classes, etc. 
may be managed to advantage. 

Millions Hanging by Disputed Signatures. 

True stories, stranger than fiction, in which the disposal of gigantic fortunes depends on 
detecting forged and spurious writing. Some of these stories involve conspiracies and i 
character. (Story of the great Davis Will Conspiracy, involving probably 5 1 .1,000,000. in ^ 

Jl'^anted: Office Assistant ; Must be Good Penman. Address ih 

Interesting results from such an advertisement in a metropolitan daily. 

"^ Little Nonsense Now and Then." 

The Journal's popular "comics "will continue to be a feature the coming year. We ha 
Webb, J. F. Tyrrel, W. B. Robinson and others whose pictorial bon-mots have already gi 

Card Writers Tell the Secrets of Their Art. 

A bright string of suggestions, experiences, etc., by well-known card writers. 

Boys 70 ho Shine as Penmen. 

Glimpses at the juniors who are making their mark as artists and teachers, with portrai 
writers," teachers and school owners of distinction will also have attention. 

Glimpses at Our Private Scrapbook. 

The Editor started a penmanship scrapbook over 25 years ago. It has hundreds of pages no 
known penmen of the country from the time it was started. Many of these have now 
description of this scrapbook cannot fail to interest penmen. At the same time we shi 
keeping a penmanship scrapbook. 

Penmen with Big Head^ for Business. 

Sketches of well-known writers who have succeeded well in other lines of business. P 
Penmen;" chatty papers on the sports they like, the books they read. etc. 

Hozif I Earned my First Dollar. 

An object lesson for boys. Leading teachers and business men tell how they made their start 

General Miscellany for Leisure Reading. 

Many interesting special articles will be introduced in this department, includin] 

skill of the penmanship experl 

Ow7i Handivritino 

sketches and specii 

give suggesii* 

poetry, dcscfiption, etc. Journal readei 
Packard has promised more of his char 
from the Note-Dook of a New York Newspaper Repori 
from Many Climes," contributions from Journal readt 

Prize Penmanship Contests. 

ich has been tried by TiiR Ji 

't^i's depar"? 

iter Abroad;' 

thing about how 

s of the world. 

from standard aut 
ent from their owi 
Jonquil will reaj 
I great newspaper 


point IS that whatever other pi 
ihis establishment), you still need 1 uk rKM 
ment of the art it stands for. 
DON'T ask to-morrmn to do to-day's work, 
wanted everyxvheri- in unoccutfted territory 

nship literalu 

: ways during the past few years. 

.'/// tia'er he a htit<r tim,- for suliscribin\r tluxji no70. Agents 
DANIEL T. AMES. Editor and Owner, 202 Broadway, New York. 


Refs:ular Premiums. 


liable ti 

titled t 

\ t€> eh 

f thf 

Works of Instruction in Penmanship. 

Ameft* Guide to HeH-lnMiructlon lu 
■ractlcal and AriUllc PenmaoBblp.^ 

his useful boob is whnt its name Implies. 

— -s the Guide will be sent li 

10 reiful 
Price V 

Ttio regular premlniE 

e than 


loth . 


I the (juide. but In- 

ya. need ues 

proving his 
) ensfir ob- 

Tbe LordU 


% each when ordered c 
ar with these plctur 

Special Premiums for Clubs. 

To stimulate those who interest themselves ii 

o pay them for their t 

It new Miib. 

ited above, the 
Jerof the club, 
lirect. tlDless 
1 be mailed, all 
uiums are only 

uis cnuraeratcil 
, or one (rrosa 

I tw G 


) restricted that 1 

follows : 

o Koad <'hara<-tcr Oom Hand 

^L rcadci's will be particularly jo- 
in this work. It is nnt likcU- rlmt. oil 
agrcewlth the imthri id 

hotacter mny in 1. 

biy diaguoscd b^ ■ 



' diaguos. 
but nothl: 

t shades 



uliaiHulei-istiiiB by liaudwritiuif 


How to Apply for a SI 
Gel If. 

lualloii iind 

. n.itii,,-. or the 

work that further iv |.l .unr i.. 

readft tbroutih with i. n ii < >i 

1 hu\L' kept thi 

ploe© after obtalQing it -bad 
co]jy of ibiB work and gIvun 

he possfseed a 
t a little ntten 

r^ ^en/ruiM Q:::il^y d^tcz/iaC) 

Kood— nothiDff llk€ 

a $100 typewriter, to be sure ; 

I'lit it laa (y/jfW'-f/ercopable 

good Kpced. 
toy. but u machine built 

typewriter we 
_.«n. In operatlot 
Ik-ltr lUelf. We 
^^ illy used It. 

OUR OFFBR.— We will senrl the Simplex Typewriter liy express. 

charge's to be paid by receivei. fur six sabacriptions, {$6). for three snb- 

scriptions and *1, (fl). or f f r erne subscription and %\.1h. (i(;3.75). These 

offers are for either new suhsciiptions or r*-nevals. the only difference belngthat the 

will also get regular premiums. For 25 cents estra, or for one adJitioual 

subscription, we will send the machine carefully packed by registered mail. 


the favorable regard of the business educators 
of the country and to the young men and 
wouieo who are entt- ring upon a business edu- 

1 busi 

; life. 

"The Pbnuak's Art Jocrsal isanorgan 
of DO uncertain sound. Its utterances are 
bold, decided and in the direction of oil good 
achievements. We look upon it as the most 
valuable of all the agencies for promoting 
sound ideas of the great work in which we are 
engaged, and we hereby pledge it our hearty 
co-operation and support." 

But The Journal was not at any tin 
' organ " of Ihe B. E. A. or any oth( 
\ ready-mac 

AssociatioD, Mr. Warr, 

t for the asking 
mditioD, l)efore 

s to a specified 

exclusive franchise given i 
without qualification or ci 
it was born or any living 
what it would be ex( ept a 
number of pages. 

Tbe advent of an " organ " carried with 
it a promise that this work of publishing 
proceedings, etc., would be done better 
and more fully than when it had been done 
unofficially. We believe that much stress 
was laid on this point and are not sure 
that with an "organ" to do the work it 
was thought necessary to continue the 
official pamphlet publications. Since the 
"organ" itself has officially promulgated 
the statement that The Joursal waa made 
the beneficiary of a "subsidy year after 
year," precise figures relating to that mat- 
ter cannot be out of place. 

By actual measurement the type meii^ure 
of a Business Education page is just ore- 
third of a Journal page. BusinesH Edu- 
cation went home from Chautauqua on the 
fifteenth of last July with a gift of an 
official franchise as exclusive " organ " 
in its pocket and a subsidy of about ten 
thousand subscriptions drummed up amoug 
its members, during the sessions of the 
convention, thought over the mitter ten 
weeks and brought forth its first issue 
without a line that we can discover to 
signify that any such thing as the B E. A. 
ever held a meeting or ever existed at all, 
bejond the merest foot note stating that 
6ome matter in its shorthand department 
had been read at the convention. A 
month later, four months after the conven- 
tion, it pulls itself together heroically and 
dismisses the convention with a space of 
less than three JorRNAL pages, embodying 
"only the most brilliant gems," on the 
plea that it can't aftord more space for the 
purpose although " every sentence " de- 
livered at the convention "was freighted 
with an idea." Since the comparison has 
been offensively forced upon us we may be 
pardoned for comparing this with similar 
performances by The Journat. in recent 
years, and also further enlighten our 
brother on the true inwardness of the 
" jear after year subsidy " business. 

In 188G the B. E. A. Convention was 
held in New York. The Journal printed 
official aad editorial articlis relating to 

the Association in its issues of January, 
February, April, May, June, Jul?. August 
and September — eight months of the 
twelve, with an Aggregate space of about 
fourteen pages — nearly equal to the entire 
reading space of the June and July issues, 
which cost us in our 
Warr, fully as much t 
sidy demand by you 

ug your 

own money, Mr. 
B the private sub- 
as a condition of 
1 " — say $3500. 
nd one-half pages 
?onvention report, 
of Business Educa- 

Of this 

were devoted to the 
equal to an entire issue 
(ion and four times the spice occupied by 
the report in that " organ " for November. 
Not a dollar of the convention's money 
came into The JotmsAL's pocket for any 
part of this service in the way of a sub- 
sidy or otherwise. There was indeed 
a small bili for advertising against the 
Association— $25, to be exact— which the 
editor donated to help meet the expenses 
of the organization. 

In 1?87 The Jcurkal gave three pages 
to B. E. A. topicF. Not a dollar waa ap- 
propriated. In 1888 the space was nearly 

four pages, ctjual to twiKe pages of Bu»i- 
nts8 Education. Not a dollar was appro- 
priated. In 1889 The Journal gave 
Dearly seven pagfs to the convention re- 
port, besides the preliminary announce- 
ments. This report alone would fill two 
thirds of an fs%ue of BusineM Education. 
The convention upon the motion of Mr. E. 
R Felton, seconded by Mr. R. C. Spen- 
ctr, appropriated $100 to help pay for the 

In 1890 B. E. A. topics occupied nine 
pages of Journal space. Of this seven 


more of its valuable space for doing pre- 
cisely what it was created and invested 
with a free franchise to do. But that is its 
matter and the B. E. A.'s. The charge that 
The Journal has reci ived a "subsidy year 
after year " is our matter, and we have 
shown exactly what it amounts to. 

Supplementary to our report we have 
published in the past few issues a number 
of columns of penmanship matter which 
formed part of the proceedings of tbe late 
convention, be«ause it was just in our line. 
We should have printed i 



half pages (rqual to twenty-two made several earnest attempts to gettrans- 


pages) 1 
proceedings, which were 
illustrated with thirty-five separate en 
graviugs. In the enforced absence of the 
editor this work was done by a profes- 
sional reporter, at a cost of several hun- 
dred dollars. The Association contributed 
nothing — not even thanks. 

During the present year, 1891, prelimi- 
nary announcements of the meeting were 
printed in the issues of February, April, 
May, June and July. In the latter issue 

scripts of certain papers in the official 
porter's bauds, writing urgently for them, 
sending personally for them, and offering 
to pay for their deliverance to us or to 
their authors for desired revision, but all 
such attempts have proved ineffectual, 
even to getting a reply to a letter. 

No one need worry about the attitude 
of The Penman's Art Journal to the 
interests of business education. Its editor 

hy P. W. CosteUo, Pitfsburoh. fa. 

appeared an official announcement by the 
executive comaittee, occupying two pages. 
The committee used this as a circular, 
buying several hundred copies, payingnot 
a penny for the space, and precisely half 
the retail price for the extra Journals 


iiled to their orde: 


transaction Irom the beginning was i 
tirely at the suggestion of the committ 
to whom we were glad to give the use 
The Journal as an ecoLomical cueul 
charging nothing for space or tbe ex 
15,000 circulation given the program: 
by that means. Not a dollar of profit v 
realized or intended to be realized on tl 
transaction. Not a penny of " 
came to The Journal. 

When the late convention, without pre- 
vious consideration or notice, created an 
"organ" and gave it an exclusive fran- 
chise to do the work which, certainly 
until very recent years, no periodical 
except The Journal had thought of doing, 
it did not seem fitting to the editor to 
devote as much space as formerly to topics 
not directly in his paper's line, and only a 
short report of the late meeting was pub- 
U&hed— three months in advance of Busi- 
iifaa Education'!* mcagtr collections of 
"gems" and apology for not employing 

has been fighting under this banner too 
long to think of abandoning it now. For 
fifteen years he has given his time and 
labor and money to it — a great deal more 
than he has ever got out of it or expected 
to, if it interests anjbody to know. His 
friends in the profession are numbered by 
hundreds, and a very large percentage of 
them are generous enough to believe that 
the paper has done its utmost for the 
cause and has contributed to its advance- 
ment. These friends have liberally helped 
Toe with their influence and 
patronage, and there is no indication that 
they have changed their views. Until 

subsidy " they do. Th 

iL. though distinctly 
not an "orgrtn," will continue to hammer 
away on the old lines, serving the profes- 
sion of commercial leacheie with all the 
resources of its command ; and if any one 
can do this better, God speed him in the 
the work. 

While we have no idea of being mis- 
represented or imposed upon if wc can 
help it, we are for peace all the time, 
and for Warr, too, in every effort he 
may make to dignify and advance the 
cause of practical education and the 
personal and professional interests uf those 
who are identified with it. 

the "practical education" idea 
is coming to its own. The " higher edu- 
cational institutions " have stopped ridicul- 
ing the commercial schools and are pre- 
paring to establish commercial annexes 
of their own. Last month wc reproduced 
from the columns of the Wor England 
Journal of Kduration a very interesting 
discussion on this matter by the National 
Teachers' Association at Toronto. Some 
of our people no doubt opened their eyea 
when they read it. Here is something on 
the same lines from the School Journal ot 
October 3: 

When the first schools for business were 
started they met with unqualifled disapproval 
from educators. Nor is this to be wondered at • 
the principals were usually young men who 
could write an elegant hand (not always 
spelling their words accurately, however), and 
make flourishes with a pen of a most surpris- 
ing nature. But those were in the early days 
of these new claimants for favor. In spite of 
this poor exhibit of abihty the schools con- 
tinued to exist and in the large cities de- 
veloped, according to the Darwinian idea, into 
something surprisingly higher. 

Tbe idea of the business college has been 
seen to he valuable. In the newer institutes 
It IS noted that a " Commercial Department-" 
IS made a part of the course. Even in such a 
college as the CoUege of the City of New York 
tbe Pieparatory Depaitraent offers extra- 
ordinaiy advantages to learn commercial 
affairs ; the evening high school of this city 
follows a similar course. It may be set down 
as, a fixed fact that tbe business college has 
come to stay. The question turns on what a 
busmess school or college is ; by the way, it is 
not unlikely that the pretentious term busii ess 
collect has had a good deal to do with the dis- 
approval with which educators have viewed 
this new claimant (or recognition. Why not 
business school, or business institute J 

This has become a commercial age, and a 
knowledge of business is an essential require- 
ment for those who desire employment in 
oitiLS and large towns. There is a round of 
du'ies th^t must be performed in a specified 
way by business people, a knowledge of whi.h 

The story that is told or n woman 
in Chicago who had a thousand dollurs placed 
toller credit by her husbani illustrates this. 
She drew a check on her deposit and pre.seQted 
It You will have to be introduced," said 
the cashier. " But I don't wont to knowyou," 
said tht lady, '" I orly want the money." 

Thcie are numerous iut^-lligent women who 
could not draw a receipt accurately; and there 

^ny E 

u, and iutelligeut < 

knoniedce by tbe public 

( ssity for a comprehei 
ness methods by everyhody. The genera! 
development of the cnmitry has necessitated a 
style or educatiou not dreamed of fifty years 
ago. The commercial alffiirs uf the country 
call for bookl(eepers, cashiers, stemigraphera, 


typewriters, entry cleiks, 
railroad business, the bn 

ouug meu and ' 
li intelligibly. 

1, it must be remembered that the 

aid employs methods quite differ- 

lose in vogue in ordinary occupa- 

iccurate and handy 

the laws and cus- 

•specting liabihties— 

' the plan of tbe business 

In the development of the business college, 
it has for it.s starting point penmanship. The 
etEort has been to make the course of study 
affect the character of its pupils; mental dis- 
cipline is the aim of the well equipped com- 

impnrt knowl- 
iriict the men- 

tal powers intelligently and to a 
the affairs of every day. Tin* 
these institutions have on pubHc- 
they aid so many hundreds of young meu ami 
women to make their way in life. The pupil 
is inspired with confidence that he has tbe 
means of self-support; he sees that his knowl- 
edge with sotiie capital will enable tiim to en- 
ter on gome line of business, and he may thus 
accumulate wfalth enough for his support. 

The so-called " busiue-ss educatiou meth- 
ods" have stfudily pushetl their way into all 


Ihe ( 

imined showed that type- 
writing was taught iu ten, shoi-tbtiiid in five, 
bookkeeping in all; even in so-called fashion 
able schools (Lasell, for exampli-l tbe keeping 
of accounts is taught. Tnen the old idea that 

tains to 'i/V li:i-> disciphiie in it; and it can be 
s(^n that the Lxi-is of manual training is upon 
this idea. It is a sound basis; we educate to 
live, hence hfe furnishes tbe basis of the edu- 


^S^una/bd QyULQ^ttz/uiS 


\InUial Uj Frank 3. PdUit of The 
Journal Art De- 
partment. ] 

/U RING the past 
month many letters 
received from com- 

*}\\S^// hhip schools strength- 

'4-' i^ on the indications 

■^ ' i)f an exceptionally 

/J'''^-^JtL\ prosperous year, as 

'^^•KtTte ^W outlined io our re- 

port in the laxt iteue 
of The JoirnxAL. 
With bountiful erops 
in nearly every sec- 
tion of the country, 
those schooU partic- 
ularly which draw 
their potronago laryely from farmers are pros- 
iwring as they have not done for years. In the 
ol>8enco of reliable (Inta it is difficult to esti- 
mate even approximately (he number of stu- 
dunta in attendance nt the business schools of 
thisc-ontinont, but wo think the number cannot 
bu short of one hundred thousand. 

— A. W, MadisoD, a teacher of commercial 
and common branches of many years standing 
has become superintendent of the Thompson 
Bus. Coll., New York. Mr. Madison was one 
or ouj" teaching force at Amos' Bus. Coll. a 
number of yearsago, and we know him to be a 
very conscientious and faithful teacher. 

— C. B. Shanks, a student of much promise, 
is Thb .InimNAi-'s representative in the Gem 
City Bus. Coll.. yuincy, 111. 

— J. r. Prince, a clever youug penman of 
several y& ' 

— Prin. E. M. Huntsinger of Hu»t--iinger's 
B. C, Hartrord, Conn., reports an increased 
attendance of about 20 per cent, over lost year, 
and the indications are that this will be by far 
the most (.-uccessful year since the institution 
was eiitablishcd. Mr. Huutsiuger is in all 
respects an excellent teacher. 

— The year book of the Interlake B. C, Lan- 
sing, Mich., IS ornamented by the portraits of 
Prin. W, A. Johnson and the heads of his va- 
rious departments. The school appears to be 
enjoying a good patronage, 

— J. F. Siple. whose work 
mentary i 
supervision of Prof. Uriah McKee, Oberlin, 

.'cd compli- 

._ last month's Jodrxal, is 

perfectmg htmseK in his '-hosou art under the 
superv' ^" ' "" ' •'-■-' "-•^-- *.i..^i.-_ 

ntly to a lecture by Eli Perkins, 
the celebrated humorist. 

— A. J. Ualrymnle.whoseexcollent business 
writing we have liad occasion frequently \ 

Euclid Ave. Bus. Coll., Cleveland, O. 
— J. F. Cozai't purchased from A. M. Tri 

«, has been ^..-tf- — >- 
teach tbat branch at the Bishopville, S. C, 
graded school. 

— At the heail of the Zanesville, Ohio, B, C. 
is F. B. 8trougb, a capable youu^ penman and 

commercial teacher 
success of his work. 

— J. E. Souers is teaching bookkeepii 
the Evi'iiiiii- Seiii-.i- S.-hool <>( New York 

ber of years' experience. His graceful pen- 
manship has more than once been reproduced 
in the Tqb Journal. Mrs. Coxaitisa teacher 
of shorthand. Hosts of friends wish Ihem 
every success, 

— A late addition to our private album of 
penmen is the photograph of J. W, Griffith, 
penman of the Uui. of the Pacific. College 
Park, Cal. It shows a young man of about 
with clear cut features and bright aud 

aking a decided handsome face. 

We mentioned last month the business 
bination effected by L. H. Jackson and R. 

iiniii ■• . -;.;■.. 1 I., ..111. 
int M,„ ,-,,,,. ,t, ,M ti,.. \\..-i. 

— All iiitfrfstiiiK (nograinuie was carried 
out on the occasion of the eighth annual com- 
mencement of the Cleary fl. C, Yisilanti, 
Mich., on Nov. 18. 

~- A. P. Thomas, A.M., is prcfddent and W. 
C, BoHtwick penmanship director of the Ho- 
garth Bus. Uui., New Haven, Conn. There iA 
n CTeat deal of dash and spirit in Mr. Bost^ 

F, Day, late of the faculty of the Va. Bus. 
Coll., Bedford City, Va. These progressive 
teachera have established a business cSlegi 
Charlotte, N. C, and report excellent proi 

Carpenter's B. & ^ 

uuque«tfonalil> r ■ ■ ■ i i i; ni 
the teaching force ol llmt in-,MHi 
— U. L. Wood, Louisville, Mis 


grounds as an inducement to this end. 

— D. C. IHibbs, prin. of the Bus. Coll.. Oil 
City, Pa., has passed through a profitable 
year and rejoices in a favorable outlook for 


is Fi'od Zilloux, who handles a pen with free- 
dom aud grace. 

— The advertising literature of Weaver's 
Institute of Penmanship and Art, Mt Morris, 
111 . would indicate a very satisfactory state of 
atlaii-s at that institution. It shows, too, a 
prtigivssivu man at the head of it. 

— W. H. Bilge, late of the facidty of Schol- 

has for years been a steady reader of Thb 
JouRKAi. and owns a copy of every issue since 
the year 1883. 
— Skilfully made sets of capitals come from 

r Lomcta, Texas. 

niand of the ppn, tnit our coriespoudei 
assumed sucb prot>ortion!i that we are not now 
able to devote tn this ]nirp<\«.e the space that 

ndicates a Hne attendance at tbat ii 
— The effect of ornate initial letters judi- 
isly distributed is well illustrated by the 

Tolaud's, Ottawa, III., Bus. Uni 

- R. J. Maclean, Prin. of the Com. Dept. of 

with pride to a iniml ■ 
making their murk > 
— Students of tli' 
were recently treateil i 
by Dr. Irving Hundy. 

, St. Louis. 

I'k-nts, if any. writ© 

All the require- 

— R. L. Reynolds has retired from the 
teaching force of the State A. & M. College 
to engage with a business firm. His succe^sor 
iu penmanship is Albert McMicheel, master of 
a beaiitiful light-line style of business script. 
!h"':- H":. Volt, Jounral, Dallas, Texas, 
I- ii.iii., |. illii.<t.i-ated with pen designs by 

lapolis Bus. ITui. Many 

used in illustralint: it An' t)i r 
trated and well-prinii .1 I li i 
Dingo B. C, Aii;.ii ' . M i i 

— Pi'in. McCool of the Spencerian B. C, 
Philadelphia, sends us a catalogue that is lux- 
urious as to paper and press work, and very 
business-like in arrangement, 

— Fi-omthe Augustana B. C, Rock Island, 

— A large and ■ 

finish. I 
from H. 1 

Ind., audH. C. 

jeyuud their yeaiA. A guud ^pecimeu is also 
>eut by J. F. Liob, 13 yeara old. 
— Our young friend E. A. Cast, Sniiervisor 


NUMBER of orna- 
irii nial bits, including 
I infills endend-piects, 
u L-if submitted in our 
late competition by 
V. G. Kimman of 
Rochester, to whom 
was awarded the prize 
of Ames' Compendium. 
announced in last 
month's issue of The Jour- 
nal, One of those initials 
iragraph and one of the end- 
pieces will also be found on this poge. Several 
other excellent ones are held iu reserve. We 
have during the past month also received 
ornate initials, etc., of meritorious design 
from W. M. Manley, Nashville, Tenn., whose 
work we have previously shown ; from J. F. 
Briley, St. Louis, Mo., who has also had sev- 
eral such designs in The Journal, Mr. Briley 
is now connected with the Woodward-Tieman 
Printing Company, the largest lithograph and 
printing house in St. Louis. P. W. Costello, 
Scranton, Pa., whose beautiful Christmas de- 
sign is shown on another page, likewise contrib- 
utes some initials which will find their way 

— We have received a considerable botch of 
penwork, including flourished and drawn de- 
signs, also -script of good quality, from E, A. 
McPhei-sou, Itbaca, N. Y. Other specimens of 
the same character come from D. L. Stoddard, 
penman of Teller's Bus. Coll., Kalamazoo, 
Mich. Specimens of pen drawing are credited 
to Mellor, H(^i. So. Dak. 

— An admirer of flourished designs would 
find much to his liking in the contributions 
that have come to us within the past few 
weeks, to say nothing of about twenty •' crack " 
designs for our new " Galaxy of Flourishei-s " 
series, which begins this month. We have i-e- 
ceived many outside contributions of a par- 
ticularly meritorious character, so that we 

Com. Coll.: W. H. Bedford, Guelph, Ont.. 
Bus. Coll.: R. L. Park. Baldwin Uni.. Berea. 
O ; G. H. Mohler. Tremont, Neb., Normal 
School. Mr. Mohler's designs aru in the form of 

— J. U. Gordon, another accomplished young 
writer and teacher, now engaged in school 
work at Rocky River, Ohia, siilimits a number 

c excellent. 

1 is a loi from tho South, sent by J, T. 

lic.wiii;; Ilie inipr(iv(;iiii.-nt iiiiide by 


Putuum, R. L. aud VV. C Uarrill and Fannv 

- W,_- huvu ivoeive.1 ri<im Mr, Gulcley's Wil- 

from making our compliments to John Adams, 

e and creditAble 

students' wot k— all good. Like many another 
successful teacher, Mr. Westrope attributes his 

of tho 
ts. His 
I H. M. Purringlou, 

— Thoy send out ssome capital advertising 
literature, papers, circulars, etc., from the Lin- 
coln B. C. Neb . of which our old friend D. R. 
Lillibridge is propriet*ir and our young friend 


Unl, of the Pacific:, Collcgo Pnrk, Cal. 



In Luck Certain. 

pictures and wring- 
rMoniio Imaginable. 

Ml ii living. There 
Mini, and I could 

.ink. I houKht u 9-5 
V. D.-1no & Co , 
that diiy my luck 

, Horhttttr, .V. Y, 

P'^^S&iman^ QTUct CL^iunaS 


rigiMv foOnveiwi ■ 

'es btino "'titled. So/arm J 
tm done topUaily, rather 1 

fargotUn tht- form of th 


no eonjc^iMnoei 

No. 3-Itec«fpt8 

No. 3— Orders 

Birthday Cards 

Business Paper— Importance of KnowlnR All 

about it 

Buflliiew Ptnmflnslifp— Effect of Uachlne 


« of the Old Ones m 

3 Ignored ? 
the University 

Bill's Tenor 

Writing Ch 
or nnd My : 
Education the PopularCry 183 

1 My Boas (Verse). 

CoDfineror Coiiciuored (Voi-ae) . 

Copy-books, System, etc. (Lucy 

Clial* Willi Hoiuc Learners— Hints 

i.JLucy E. Keller). 
Spell ir 

Desk Position -A Question of Health (H. W. 
Cole, J. C. Witter, D. W. Hoff. etc ). 20.36, 

60, 6G 

Dls-tributinc: nnd (.'ollectiog "Writing Mate- 
rials {H (baniplin) 38 

Doiinninii Milli'iiitim- The _ ra 

UonrOld Friend. M 

. 11 


Editor's Dream. The 

lidiicHtloual Notev, £ 

Editor's Sorap Bool 

maushlp Specimens IIii 

Editor's Caloiidar-i 

1 Sketch . 

. IM 

Proffsslonallr Con- 

fclin^ ForyiTiw, etc. 

Will Conspiracy — Ai 
ry ot Forgery and Frau- 

Italian Capitals 

Inslracllon lo Pen 

Closinir the series by H 

_jidta Ink—A New Liquid 

Interest In Penwork— How 


» Bar to Pen 

lllals fnd End Pleceti (Course of In- 

ork-No. 29- 

V. Kibbe 5 

Preparation 25 

_ ___ r to Arouse It 36 

and DIsseminatingr them 

India Ink— A 
Interest In P< 

I deaa— Pr esc r v 

(D. W. 

Invisible Ink IMrntd to Practical 

- - -nd r 

P. /anor). 



(.The (Verse).. 

84,99, 11.-1. 128, H 

Jaw-te6t4?r, A 

'■Jumped' —Story of Ben Fargo's Claim.. 


Kinsley. Mrs. W . J,— Death of 

Kinpley. w, J.— Leavetaking: 

KeepinfT Books by Hierogliphics. 

Kelcbner, L. M.— Sketth of 

Left-handed rhildreu 

Dl Methods (L. 

/eree)' ■■'. -'-' 1 
, Germany by 

Million Checks Daily 

Musical Accessories 

Muscle Timbering Pmcess . 

Methods of nn Expert Penn: 

(A. P. Boot)... 

Mosquitoes by WeiBot 


Newcomers from Europe 7 

Newspaper Work— Value of 119 

Nantucket Lifi;ht-8hip. - - 13(1 

Nuughly Greek Girt. The tVerse) 131 

"No Flies "on this School 136 

Nature's Vegetable Lamp 142 

Napoleon'a Bees 149 



Pennianahlp In Pnbllc 

nd Graded 

66, 82, 100, 112, 12t 
144. 101. 171 

__ __ J Department 

Indexed under their Several Head- 
Practical' Educati.m tlieTlii 
- lition the ~ 
By me I. - 
of Gen 

Keliitiiv_- (n 
Pn"-.iiri_- ..! II,. ;, lij-.-t Annual Meet- 

Vv" ■ I' imI Annual Meeting. 1 

Penniiii ' ! .. i . -. Imols of Grand 

PflllM.liin-' M..^^ i- ■ IIM' l-iiiilN (T,uVy"E. 



Position the G 


Penmanship a) 

of German 
Poetry— How 

(.1. U Duryea 
-hip Le«.Hfl 

I by E. K. I^, 

Penmanship it 
Pen as a Travf 

, lifer Lit^n.rv Pamilv 94 

t.iinl IVI1--T.. M.-r (\ riNfi 55 

i,M!:iii]lritiir.ns .,1 Hii-itn-^> Tcachcrs 72 

Quia Pen LUjcfLuV'"'!"'!v.v. \v.\. ".■.;■':;;... .1^ 


Remarkable Memories. Ai 

Iliaht Wo«l, The ^ 

Kauidity of breams S 

Beiicof "TheQoodOld Days." ".. " n 

Hobiuson's " Artificial Muscle ** ' Ts 

Head Before siinioif '\^ 

ItijThts of Teachers and employers laa 

HesouiOK Pi-ecious Manuscripts ... m 


Shoriliiiml ixu,\ r> I'enrfllner Topics. 

I 'I I'iioQograpli's New 

f'' ' -hnrthand. ..!!!* 2 

LtiLi^i,:! .M.ui,,;,t (..'liv^pondenceon Pen- 
raoiLabip 8 

-with IJvely 

1 <>>mpany's 

No. 5— The Tower of London 

No. 0— The Gay French Capital. 

No 7 (concluded)— Venice, the I 

the Adriatic 

Smallest Ameiiijau Hallway 

Slidiziir Scale Murder Prices 

S|>oed— How to Kegulate it During 
B. Duryea). 

Other Schools (&. J. C^dman) 
Students' Work— Daily r 


Stub Pi'n-Tu the fVt-rse) . 

Exchanging with 

Storm King, The . 178 

Steam Power on EartK "B 

Typewriting Topics (see Under Shorthan<^, 
Trick in Adding 

Teaser for Spelling Sharps . ... 

Titles for Penmen- No More Meaniouk 

Tired of Bad^'Coj 

la Pretty Stoiy 

Uncle Sam's Big Business— Millions Astray 

in the Mails 

UnilniTiiiiv 01 Heierlit In Figures (W. H. 

le-Arm" Contingent. The.. 

tiDff to 

ridyl iVfi--. 

iiianship Teacher's Hor- 


ti in Advertising 174 


r Years Greetinir(W. G. Christie) 

Gramophone— Three I uts 

1 Penman's LErsmEliomi 

Flourished Specimens by C. N. Crandle, 
C. L. StubbB. M. U. Moore, W. I. Staley 

Sciii I I .1 WiIuox,C.G. 

I< . I : ' \ r -, [■:. E. Cammack 

WBrriM- \~ I M . iij I 1.1 H Brs. Colleges. 
Spei^iiiieiis simIIit's Business Col- 
Landscape- Prize Drawing, by R. Blossom 


A "Rapped Writer "—Comic, by J.F. Tj'r- 


Ornate Initials, Start Pieece, etc. 

Outline Portraits with P. B. E Report of T. 

A. Robinjon. F. C. Woodworth, J. H. 

Aydelotte. w c Etamsey. V. "5. Haley, 

E. P. 

id. F. ' 

Outline Portraits v 
Crandle, W. K. C 
H. T. Loomis. En 

r, Hopkins' 
[.ondoni^i- 23 

First Pij/A- \\ iiuKT Ln .1 W.Jone8.Scc- 
ond Prize Wionei- bv 1-'. M. Sisaon. 
Initial Letters by CM. Wiener, ThbJouknal 

Flourished Desi 

Page from Uigh-i. 

Specimens from Goldey's Wilmington. 
Del , Com. Coll. 
Initial Letters, Start and End Pieces, and 

" Susan's Side "—Comic, by \ 

. J. Young. 
I. Uoblnson. 

n and U ^. Colltua. 


. Authors, O. M. 

"MiudiiiK tlio Baby"— Wood Cut Copy of 

Example (tf'ornnt.'rorameriVnl Pen Work. 8« 

The JornNAT.-sS.ftAP Book 89 

Script I'lMiiMi'li - l>> I -II .--Imttuck.E. H. 

The Pen I 

(Comic by ^ . . _, 

Initial Lcttei'9 by C. M. Wiener, Znuf-ri 


(Comic by J F. Tyrrell).. 

'nilial Let "- " " 


i>y a. N. Faulk and F.B. 

i-cs (E. K. Isaacs) 

iMPT Portfolio : 

,- M. Chartier and W. Q. 

wing byAmateui (E. K. 


I Album- Hair-tone Itc- 

. with End 

i'by D. \Y. 


Model Note (By Prof IV II 
from his " Wntinir I f— .n- "' 

production of Tbit 

^^~t_Je/i/nan3 QyttCOJowtna/f? 


Tbb Jontut At.'s Script Fortfouo 13 

Examples by Harold C. Spencer, A. J. 

Dalrymplc and H. H. Stutsman. 
FIB Pknman'b Lbiscrb Hour 
Ornamental W(*k by C. L ! 

I Lbiscrb Hour... 186 

_ sMe: HcLiiteMeKot'"(PcnDraw- 

InifbyS. D. Holt 

Initial Lettei-s, cU-.. by J- F. llilley. Thb 

Fancy Pen Drawing (C- F. Johnson) 

Examples of 'Profi^ssfotuil "and " Practi- 
cal '' Writinjr.-Script Illustrations with 
Chat to Learners 

Illustratfons with Miss Smith's Paper on 
"Penmnnshlp with Vocal Music" 

Pen Dmwinir (P. W, Costello) . 

Omntnnd Lincoln Memorial (full page)-. - 

Examples from the B. fit S. Bus Coliege, 
St. Louis 
Ornamental Foot-plcce (^nerian Artists) ■ 

Thb Pkkman's Lbisurb Houn 

Bird Flourishes by W. E- Dennis and J. 
F. Cozjirt 
Old English, German and Church Text 


Initial Letters by R. L. Dicken9heets,0. H. 
Bresce.G. W. Wallace, etc, 
Various Cut« Illustrating the Story of the 

Illustrations with Mr 

Lesson o 

Copies for Proctioe with Mr. Patrich's Les- 
son 1 

Full Page Half-tone Plate Example of En- 
grossed Resolutions.. 

Portraltand Autograph of A. R. Dunton.. 164 
Portraits of Zanerlnn Au thors— Zaner, 

Kelohner, Dloser . 

Combination of Script, Lettering and 

Flourlshlnir— Title Page of New Work 

by J.C. '- 

" Chanpe of I 

by J.C. Witter. 

I Desired "—Comic De- 

sign by A. C. Webb-. 
Lion's Head (Pen DniwiniJbj S. D. Holt).,, 171 

Comic Drawing 


We bflvc i-etnlned a few complete 

Z __. '' .'. y, closing 11 

Issue), which will be mailed, post paid, for 81 

Journals for 1801 (Vol. XV, closing' 

pt Feb., May 

nl' 'xiin - ,Inij . M;iivh. May, July. 

ol' XIJ) — Comp'lcte set. $1; single 

Vol. XI).— Complete except 


umber. Price, SI ; single 

(i:;eptOct..Nov , 
i-espectively)- — 

c-pt May, June, 

1 liani 

These back numbers take up too much room, 
and in future we shall carry very few. Those 
who wish the paper should subscribe in ad- 
vance. Nn prttniumi art aiven with bai:h iium- 

TllB JotniNAL would be olarl to hear from any 
friend who has for gain or crchange hack numhcrs 

The price is 75 

2oa liroadwav. New i 

Pcrmaneut Subaeripllor s. 

The practice of The Joitbnal is to discon- 
tinue subsciHptlons at mine upon ttu'ir ti.xpiia- 

hfld overlnnltf*! i 

tb» Permanent List upon request. No su 
scription taken for less than the full r 

vill be entered on this list. 

Anyfrifnd who can send us o 
copies o/ The Jodrnai. for Fei 
May. im, roill do us a great serv 

sb.irt nc 
-nn 50 to 100 per cent, below 
.1 -iTiiilar work. Catalogue 
i: Mtig 25 desi^s to choose 

paper auveiiising, letter-head , _ 

headings, names of all commercial studies. 
" Busiuess College," "Commercial Colleee," 

, which will be refunded at 8vst order 

The Accountants' Guide, 

in, Aruuuntant. formerly book- 
-hall Field & Co., Chicago. The 
ichools and colleges; the only 

eceipt of price, S2; tiberni di9- 

■ Key to Moi 
"Graded 1. 


One Hundred Suggestions.' 
for rypew 

"One Hundred Manuscripts with Keys" iMuu- 

son byslcm,) 
'Letter llook," containing 100 assorted letters, 

with key. (Munson System 1 
For prices ami full loformallon address 



■, rih 


A LARGE number of schools and huudi-eds 
of penuieii and business friends are now 
using Ames' Bust Pens exclusively. We have 
really done very little to push the sale of these 
pens, leaving them largely to advertise them- 
selves. We have noticed that where one gross 
went other grosses were likely to follow. 

In producing this article we bad this in mind 
as the main point— and it was embodied in our 
iostruclions to the foreign Arm who makes the 

pens get the advantage of 
word for it as a surety of then 

>'Bb8T Pens and w 


ice of a quarter gross 

you take our 

quality fur yoursell 
cross box (3d cents; 
pooi-er for the ex- 

D. T, AMtS. '^^i^ B roadway, New York. 


Itun'iV!""!'!'-',' i..Vi"i.'r t"o.«B Pit »CTiCE 
If the num- 

Ketall price, SI. Wholesale price on appllca- 
H. W. FLfCKINGER. Prtckett College, Phlla- 

The Capital City Commercial ColleBe 
Th« Capital City School of Shorthand. 

the: BH3ST FEN-liA-N! 


WANTED.-Purchasers for: 

Fancy Cuvitals $0 ai 

PIninCapitals 1(1 

20 Movcmeni Exercises a) 

Written Letter. . 1.% 

Letter Shaded Backhand ai 

Set of Written Copies l.aO 

Send postal note or money oider. 

E. .A.. 0-A.ST, 

Milford. 111. 12-tf 


or commission, to handle the new Falcnt Chem- 
ical Ink Erasing Pencil. The quickest and 
greatest selling novelty ever produced. Erases 
ink Thoroughly In two seconds. No abrasion of 
paper. Works like magic. 200 to .SUO per cent. 
pront. One Agent's sales amounted to $0211 iu 
six days Another $33 in two hours. Previous 
esperieuce not necessary. For terms and full 
nnrticulai-s, address THE MoNHOE EHASEK 
M'K'G CO., ia Crosso, Wis. X215 


rpi-^AT II lilt ,,r |,i.iiiHiin-hiii. Iiookkeeping. 

rUArHEB of Commercial branches gen- 
erally, including business penmanship and 
elcctic shorthand, and a specialist in mathe- 

ALL-BOWD rommercial Teacher wishes 
rihi.i- with trnnd H.^hool : liberal common 

■I I :iii I 111 in. -~ . .. I ir !.'(.' education and teach- 

' years ; enert^etic and 








nd thoroughly cm 

Standard Phonograi'hy. 
>y Mr. Andrew J. Graham, 
landard System ; only schools 


FOR. »^4.LB 



I bear the closest in- 


lelpbla. Pamphlet on the subjeci fr 
., 633 Drexftt Blag., Philadelphia, I 


A scientific treatise tot tciching the 
manipulation of the Remington Type- 
writer without the aid of the eyes in local- 


After two years trial this system has 
proven so successful that it is deemed 
advisable for the good o( the thousands of 
typewriter operators to place it before the 


Business Schools are Adopting this Method. 

U is easier than piano playing. By its 
use a continuous operation of the keys 

No CO iTi plicated fingering employed. 
It is easy, simple and speedy. 

First edition now out and with unex- 
pectedly large sales 

A copy will be sent to any address on 
receiptor retail ,.. ice * i 25 Proper dis 
count to Business and Shorthand Schools 


Chiids' Business Collegp. 

Sprlnsfleld, !»!■ 

BE A. BOOItltfc^EPEIt? 

Then Mib>tcrll>G fur 


50c. per year. Sample copy 4c. Address, 

THE ACCOUNTANT, Des Moines, Iowa. 



The best class l>nr,k (miIiJi-Ih-iI un the subject. 

ishlp, nod can glv. 

E. D. flXA-TTIIEWlsS, 

Lock Box 338, Cedar Rapids, Iowa. 








I. W^. PATTON, Rrli^., 


■IV>lh, < 


Some books are so well written and prove so valuable to their 
owners that thieves steal their contents, and by misarrangcmcnt 
of them, make books which they try to palm off as superior to 
the originals. 

Graham's Hand-Book of Standard Phonography 

has been pirated from, to a greater extent, probably, than any 
book ever published in the United States. 

Because it is the best te.xt-book on the subject ever published, as 
is proved by the fact that it rendered obsolete all phonographic 
books preceding it, all of which are now out of print, and by the 
fact that the best portions of all ])honographic books published 
since h.ive been stolen from it. 

What evidence is there that it is a standard work ? 

// has been published 33 years m'thout change because none 
has been found necessary. 

It has been used for years in many of the best institutions of 
the country, and the system it teaches is used by the best report 
ers in the world. 

These are facts which can be proved. 

Send for a free copy of Ai.i, Ahout Piiunogkafhv, the 
largest and handsomest shorthand circular ever published. 


Author and Publisher, - 744 Broadway, New York. 

Graham's School of Shorthand and Typewriting, 

744 Broadway, New York. 



ifii n 

S H O R. TH-A-IT D. 

150 words tifi III I 

NECTIVrf V'i\, . I 

nnd to«BAI' <•■■< 

MAIL or'atLN^ I i i 'i' i i '(,''' i,., >n 

H. M. PERNiN, 

BACK NIT.-nBERS of Tbk JoCRNAL con- 
tuiuitiif Mrs. Packard's Complete Lessons 
in Munson Sborttinud for sale. Price $1-75 per 
sot, with hinder. 

Best Work on Shorthand Ever Written. 

The author of this work is Prof. Alfred Day, a shorthand 
reporter of 25 years' experience, author of "Aid to Graham," 
" Shorthand Copy-Book," &c.. President of the Cleveland Sten- 
ographers' Association, Principal and Proprietor of Day's School 
of Shorthand. 

It does not pretend to be a new system. It presents Graham's 
Sy.steni in a wonderfully simplified form, doing away entirely with 
the objections that have been made to that system by reason of 
its interminable complications. Prof. Day has removed these 
stumbling blocks, making the path of the student entirely plain. 

The results obtained by this work are unequaled in the histoiy 
of shorthand teachers. The publishers will be glad to give scores 
of testimonials from those who have acquired proficiency in a re- 
markably short time with no other teacher than " Day's Complete 
Shorthand Manual." 

The book, beautifully printed and bound in cloth, will be sent 
by mail post-paid to anv address on recei|)t of the price, $1.50 



THE BURROWS BROTHERS CO.. Publishers, ,.^, 
J3 to s; Euclid Avenue, - Cleveland, Ohio. 

The Remington Standard 


(resents tl c praciicil results achieved 

by the best inventive anil mechanical 

skill, aided by capital and the 

experience gained during 

the FibTEKN Years in 

which it has been 



Send for Illustrated Catalogue. 

Wycko^, Seamaiis & Benedict, 

327 Broadway, Ne 

■^^^T" .A. PJ T E! I> - 



And Take Good Positions as 

If \ I can write Shorthand .ind do not have 
\Q \\ n or are not sal'sficd with the one you 

We tin locate you as soon as you arc com- 
petent but we want to know of our own 
knowUdi^T what you can do. 

We w int young men and young ladies to 
leirn Shorthand of us by mail, or personally. 
Wc sfcttrf good positions for all pupils when 


Edited by Francis H. Hemperley, 

Author or "Analogical Syllabic Shorthand," and 

President oftTK- Philadeli.hiaSlenogra- 

pliera' Association. 


The Tvpcvvriltiig Deiiarliiient is conducted hy 

Bates Torrey, author of " Practical Type- 

Sentl for Saiii^ili' Vopy «n't Catalof/iif 0/ 

The Stenographer Pub. Co., 

140 So. t'oiiilliS iH'L'M'liilaili'lrliiii. I'a. 

xlay I 


QmcUly leiiin. ■; ■■ ■ ■■ ■ ■ ^ 

Circular. Miicii.ii^- iw,u..i .,.'■' u„i,, ' 

Prfrc /induced lo*'J.5. (1112) St. l.ouli. Mo. 




of Position" 
all that whk-h 


L1(;UTEI> Willi it niMl proDounce it tb 

i>Al>ILalt£ntlon nnd 

' letters 

Retail Price, - - - fl.80. 
Sample Copy to Teachers, - 1.00. 

The Bryant and Stratton Pabiishing Co. 

1-1-' 4BT *A1N Sr . BUFFA'.O, h. Y. 


IIUBV. Publi- 


PART from its immemc prac- 
tical vahte," says the Cych/<iedia 
of Education, *'Shortlinil<l 
has a high educative toorth ivhich 
should commend it to all ^ood 
teachers. The first point which 
a Principal, thinking of intro- 
ducing Shorthand into his school, 
has to decide is, the system to be 
adopted, and no hesitation need he 
felt in recommending Iganc 

Pitman|8 Phonograpliy 


ad and c 

J learn: 


AmericaQ System of Shorthand. 

To supply the incr^a.i...,' demand for 
stenoKraphcrs. sLhooIs of shorthand and 
type-writing hav been established in var- 
ious parts of the country, and, with few 
exceptions, all business colleges now hav 
a ■■ department of shorthand." A number 
of systems ar tauKht. but that of Benn 

Piiman is more generally used than any other 
In this country, and may be calltd the "Amer- 
ican Sy8tfm.--A-.//v7,V from the Report of 
the Commiiinmcr of l.ducaliun ( It'asliingfon, 
D. C), for the Year l^&-}-^%, page i)2-j. 




National Stenographer, 

Dfment'R Suwi'Stknis and ItPiiorlintf NotcB-flOf. 
IX^mcnt'H Mialiod of I.«araJiix Wor(rHlini»....5(k; 
Addrt'Ss ISAAC S. UKMEXT. UK Uturborn St.. 
Cbiwik-o, 111. 3-ir 

A thousand years as a day. No ariih 
mctic teaches it. A short, simple, practical 
mcthodbyE.C. ATKINSON. Principal of 
Sacremento Business College. Sacrcmcnto, 
Ca). By mail, 50 cents. Address as above 

"^e/wia/iA QS^Lkl/d/owuia^ 


and LETTER-WRITING, published bx 
Si'ENXER. Felton & Lo. M[s. Cleveland. O., 
is acknowledged to be the best work in 
print for commercial schools. If you have 
not seen it, remit sec. for sample copy. 
Specimen pages free. Address as above. 



e n fine hundv 
vprj'Bmnll expense without leaviuK liome : 


and trill be of frreat value tn those who 
wi-lto a slow cnimped style ; it Is ensy, rapid 
and Braot'ful. A few lessoDS will greatly 


Single lessons, 50 ceots. 12 lessons, $R. Cap- 
itals, per set. 15 cents. 2 sets, dfCTercnt, 25 
cents. Your lettercriticised. corrected and 
returu'-d. 25 cent*, tipecimen letter. 25 cotits 
Cai-ds pev doz., 25 cents. Money refunded 
If work is not satisfactory. 

%A& Box 1131. Valparaiso, Ind, 


Send me your name written In foil, and 95 oenta 
and I will seud you one doz«n or more wayn ol 
writing It, with Inatruotlona ; or eend me a S-oent 
stamp, and I wlU send you addressed la my own 
hand, price list deBoripttve of Lessons by Mall, Ei- 
UMided Movements. Tracing Exercises. Capltali, 
C'lirds. Fiourlsblng, * 



all Kinds ol Orr 

PlourlshuvR have receive*! tbe highest commeuda- 

A. E. DEWHUR&T, Utica, N. Y. 

for The Jouhnal by A. C. Webb 



GOLD MEDAL, Paris exposition, 1889. 


e orlslnal " Double- 



Adapted for use with or without Text-Book, 
and the only set recommended to 


Bryant & Stratton 



HAN'KlNr. si;t. ncsTXFss Km|;\i>^ 

DRY GOoh- ^1 11: ■.., ;, ; |;,.,.i,, 

Favoral.u- .h : - .. ••■■ ■ - n. , 
Tug best Pen in the lF.S.,aud best pcumea use them. 


This Pen, known l>v 1 1 • .' . t " inmnfiip- 
turednf the best steel . . ,i 1 |ji_j' 

are partlc-nlarly ad:ii''' ■ rriv,-ite 

contaiolng 30 Pens, m u i ; ; i, . i. jxu.iiit i,\ 




-^?M S'^v1iii' ' tf,0 

No. 128. 

Expressly adapted for professional use and oma- 




the WELL-K^'o^v^^ 
PENS suitable: for all writers. 

All of standard and Superior ftuality. 




> or postal unte) by WELIJ 



LAPILiyUM (^(oiie-Vhtl,). 

Rolls liKhtly, 
TJnci]ualcd marklntf surface. Superior erasiblo 

Black Diamond Slating*. 

The Best Liquid Slating {wifhotU exception} 

for Walls and Wooden Blackboards 
Makes the finest nnd most durnlile surface. 

of ROLL 

' I- 1 1' 'I • il in many of the leadlufi: 

' I (liis country (like C( 

^ : iii'l Kive entire satisfai 

■'■■■■'■• .1^ iiilcd. 


c km hat may be 

0, private 
or for an; 

i^inal pen 

rice whicl 

eslgn from 
b lieve, than 

m nd rices, and 

T g g y fl es m stelTectiv 

ess k V ca liem at Ice 

d m raved foi 

B g preparin. 

O m wi price-lis 

re-w cent«. whic 

w -d 


Shading T Square 


Price List of 
Penmen's and Artists' Supplies 

For iaie by THfc PE^MAN'$ ART JOURNAL. 


I' Compendium of Practioal and Oma- _ 

kc ' - 

mauship, in p<iper 
Anieb' Cony Silos for weu-ieacners 
aiandard Praotloal Penmansnfp, Dytoespea- 

" eei Brothers 

New Spencerian Oompendlom, complete in 

I' Book of Alphabets 

'"-*^- ■- " '--' and Artlallo Pen- 

„ in Diner 50c. " " 

Brothers' T.7.'.~.....~. '.'.'. .'.. '. 7. .".'. '... 1 00 

> Alph 

, five slips, 2.'>c.; complete 

German Text Alphabet. . 
Family Record. 

Marriage Certlfioate lSx23 


Garfleld Memorial 19x!M 

Lord's Prayer 19xS4 

Bouading Stag 24x32 

Flciurlshed Eagle 84x82 

Ci:utennial Picture of Prof;re38,..2SsSS 

[,£ix28, per sheet, 
r sheet, by exprc-sB . . . 


Note.— We cun supply nothing in these line-a 
exctpt the article stated below. 
Orumuemal and Flourishtd Uards, ladeslKn^ 

new, original and artistic, per pack of 5a 80 

lOObymali W 

600 " 2 50 

1000 " 84.60: by express 
Bristol Board, 8-8111 --■■■■■ 

French B. B., MkS 

Grey Itoard. 22x28, per sheet, b; 

'ng Paper, 30 inches in wtdtl 

desired length (the very thin 

per yard (h 
Card-board. 22f 

per sheet, quire 

by mall, by ex. 

Drawhig paper, hot^presB, l,'5Kao..$ .15 8 1 30 


Roll Drawing P 
of any desi: 
flne penmanship: 

Black Card-board. 22xa8, for white Ink' 

filaok Cards, per 1000, by express 

Whatman's by mall, "by 

~ ' ' " la^aa. ' 





^..,,_._ ._, M 

dsor&'hlewton'aSup'rSup India lokStlck 100 

" " " per bottle 60 

Trays or Slabs, with cover, m».4J.i. . 

Best quality Traeine Paper, yard wide . 
Wmdsor&Newton'aSup'rSup ■-"-'-•- 
Prepared India Ink, per bottle 
Ink Trays or Slabs, wit' 
White ink, per bottle,. 

Gold Ink. per bottle , .' 

Best Pen. H f 

;• Peuir 

aNo. 1 

for lettering,! 

_._. rery fine, for dL _ __„. 

Pen, for text lettering— Double 

-set of three... 

iholder. each lOo.: nerc 

icd either 

Oblique Sletal TlpaTadj'ustable to any h 

each Bo. ; per dozen 

Writing and Measuring Ruler, metal edged.. 

Irawlngj^doz. . 

Points— set of three. . 

Broad— set of five 

Oblique Penholder, each 10c. ; per dozen. . 
"Double" Penholder (may be used elt 

straight or oblique), each lOc; per doi 

Uque Metal Tips (adjustab' - ' "^ - ' -" 

each Bo.; per dozen. . 

New Improved Pantograph, for enlarging or 

diminishing draw lugs 

Iteady Binder, a simple device font^^ldlng 

nandr Binder, light and strong.. 


binder. Jour 


} B(nder, a fine, stiff, cloth 

Itoll Dlackbuarua, by express. 

No. 1, size 2 z3 feet 

Ho. 2. *: 2Kx3Jifeet 

No. 1, size 
Ho. 2, " 
No. 8, 

yard, slated 
48 inches wli_ 
Liquid Slating, 

yard, elated both sides. 2 35 

wooden bot^ds, per gallon . , .' 6 00 

on good bank note paper Is kept in stock, and 
orders will be filled by return of mall or express. 
The f raotluDat denominations are : 1 's, S's, lO's, 25'b 
and BO'S. in convenient proportious; the bills are 
in the denouiinations of I'b, a's. 5's, lO's. 20'8, M'a, 
lOO's, BOO'B and 1.000's, which are printed on sheete 
of fifteen bills each. They are proportioned so as 
make 3 ones, 3 (icot, 2 Jive*. 2 Uju. and one each of 

e proportitin In which the different denomlna- 
' 'ch Ionic experience' 
the demands and c 

demonstrated to best 

e printed [s thjil which Ionic experience 

>t furnish 
ti an tbose named, 
t additional cost. 

K [.er dozen Orders 

p omptly lilled. We 

ness colleges and 

noe of display cuts 

es for makini; pboto- 
, u p o and ok copy 

t of the thousands of cuts that have ap- 

inshipin print 

"nd I ho 1 


other educational 

mail. ( 

D. T. AMES, 


sufllclent advanet 

money with order. In all cases. Unless 

'- met no goods will be sent by 

by express, C. O. D., uolesa a 

by wrltlnK us to " send Su-and-so (yon have forgot 

" can't take less." Wb can't. We hiindle nothing 
but 'Citable goiids, and all who favor us with 
orders are assured of prompt and efUoleat service. 

AddrcH 0. T. AMES. 202 Broadnj. H» York. 



<xicommercial;. PUBL1CAT10NSI>o 


NEW COMPLETE BOOKKEEPING. 275 Pages. Retail Price, $2,50- 

NEW BOOKKEEPING. 250 Pages. Retail Price, $2.00. 
NEW INTRODUCTIVE BOOKKEEPING. 125 Pages, Retail Price, $1.25. 
FIRST LESSONS IN BOOKKEEPING. 75 Pages Retail Price, 75c. 

COMMERCIAL LAW. 310 Pages Retail Price, $2.00. 

BUSINESS LAW C ?V^STil'"). 200 Pages. Retail Price, $1,25, 

COMMERCIAL ARITHMETIC. 275 Pages, Retail Price, $2,00, 

For all CorapKTfiiil Classes Evcruhodu Lthes It. 

BUSINESS ARITHMETIC. 225 Pages, Retail Price, $1,25, 

CIVIL GOVERNMENT. 235 Pages. Retail Price, $1,50. 

Retail Price, 75c, 

SEVENTY LESSONS IN SPELLING, 130 Pages. Retail Price, 30c 

PEN-WRITTEN COPIES (REPRODUCED). 255 Copies and Instruc- 
tions, Retail Price, $1.00. 

THREE WEEKS IN BUSINESS PRACTICE. Method .*' Outfit, $35,00. 


nif iuiiy mctes^ftit nchf me rrer deviud fnr inwttrQttng Burtnefi. Jt affnriis jiinl (hf ilri'l that fg 

irxfHfary to fit the pupil in tliehtiit poMlblf way for o 

- f-opij of a 

We also carry a line of Diplomas for both Commercial and Shorthand Departments, which may be 

adapted to any school ; also Blank Books and Business Forms for Bookkeeping, Stationery, 

College Currency, &c., &c. Correspondence Solicited. 

WILLIAMS & ROGERS, Educational Publishers, Rochester, N. Y. 


W. H. PATRICK. 643 N. Fulton Ave.. Baltln 

Publishing Company, 

e, Md. 

We are now prepared to rule and bind Blank 
Books in any style and size that may be desired, 
with or without printed headings. 

We have in stock a superior grade of school cur- 

itnmerci^-i j'ubi.shtfj rcncy, and every variety of Business Stationery 

ufatruring Stationers, "sed in Business College Work. 

edar fiapitti, Iowa. We can furnish currency and stationery with the 

imprint and address of any coUege; or we can print, 

short notice, any special blank forms that may be desired. Write 

for samples and prices. 

'ill- I'liblii- Si-ImmiK niitl .\<'ii<l<-BiifN.- 'riukk.'i'DiiiK Single ^ntry aloitu, Bookkeeping, Double 

i^iiar Knvtds. lown. 




and oibers as ihor- SHORT-HAND & TYPEWRITINC a 
oughly as any expert blifALL't 
short-hand 1 

All .u . chapter I Oc. 
All that Selection of I 
to follow 10,000 

jf 1 00 1. 



brnnLbes and of Draivino end Pkn- 
THK NATIONAL LEAGUE has ii Bureau in 
in the fnlon which toiiccntmto their whole 
nd skill upon tlicONR POI.NT of sek-ctlnKand 


Lfadine exclusive College of PeDniBDship nod Art in Amcricn. The place to become a Penman. Artist and Teacher. Class drill and individual iaatruction. Three 
superior peumen giving entire atteution to the school and work. Six hours instruction daily. Tuition reasonable. Good board and furnished room in private families 
only *;i.50 per week. More applicaiiooi^ for graduates than we can fill. All-round course of instruction embracing nice styles of Penmanship, Flourishing, Engrossing, 
Drawing, Portraiture and Theory. Finest PenmaO's supplies obtainable. Lcisoas by mail. Job work of every description done iu a superior manner, on short notice. 
n:_, J desi;jned and cuts furnished. Magnificently illustrated catalogue, showing work of graduates, with portrait of faculty, signatures, etc., etc., sent on receipt of 


6Te red stamps o